How old was the youngest white person sentenced to death in the U.S.A?

How old was the youngest white person sentenced to death in the U.S.A?

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Death penalty has for a long time been exposing interesting trends of social discrepancies based on life determining attributes like wealth, education race.

How does the answer compare to the youngest black, or other non-white person sentenced to death in the U.S.A.?

The youngest that I can find evidence of was Irving Hanchett, executed in Florida at 15 on 5/6/1910.

Irving Hanchett, barely 15 years of age, was executed by Florida in 1910. Only three months elapsed between his crime (the murder of a teenaged girl who rejected his advances) and his execution. Hanchett had just moved to Florida from Connecticut and had no frieds or family in the area. While he was awaiting execution, a priest baptized him into the Catholic faith, and Hanchett seemed to be buoyed by the hope of salvation. As the 15-year-old mounted the scaffold, he said: "Marcy, my Jesus, my Jesus, mercy. Goodbye everyone" (Florida Times Union [Jacksonville], 7 May 1910).1

Note that there are some discrepancies as to his age, for example this newspaper article reports him as being 18:

Deland, Fla., April 8. -- Irvin Hanchett, the 18-year-old boy charged with the murder of Clevie Tedder, aged 14, on February 12, was placed on trial here today. The child's body was found near the roadside, not far from her home, with more than sixty knife wounds, made with an ordinary pocket knife.2

However, the preponderance of materials I could find gave his age at 15.

Note that this is the youngest that I can find substantiating record of. The database at lists an unnamed white male executed for arson in Suffolk County, Massachusetts in 1837 at the age of 13, but I can't find any source material that would corroborate that.


In response to the edited question, the youngest person (and certainly the youngest female) generally believed to have been legally executed in the United States is Hannah Ocuish, executed at age 12 in Connecticut in 1786.

Note that the site linked about records 2 other 12 year olds executed, both black slaves, a boy in Virginia by the name of Clem on 5/11/1787 and another boy named Bill on 7/30/1791. In the latter case, there seems to be a disagreement on the location. I'm guessing that the LA Times is the more accurate account.3

1 Radelet, Michael ed. Facing the Death Penalty: Essays on a Cruel and Unusual Punishment, p 52

2 Morning Examiner. (Bartlesville, Okla.), Vol. 15, No. 46, Ed. 1 Saturday, April 9, 1910, p 3

3 Los Angeles Times. Death for Juvenile Crimes : Execution, a Practice Dating to 1642, May Continue This Week, January 07, 1986 p online

It is certainly possible that, if one considers persons put to death by the civil and military officials of the Confederate States of America to be legally executed instead of murdered, the youngest white person executed would be a victim of the CSA during the four violent years of its existence.

As an example; Some German Americans resisted the secession of Texas and I have read that a number of men and boys were hung by the Texans because of that.

I have read a statement that a 14 year old boy in the 2nd Minnesota infantry was hung by Rebel cavalry under General Wheeler for unspecified reasons, possibly after some type of court martial.

According to Co Aitch, by Sam Watkins, two teenagers were hung as Union spies at Chattanooga in the Summer of 1863:

can now recall to memory but one circumstance that made a deep impression on my mind at the time. I heard that two spies were going to be hung on a certain day, and I went to the hanging. The scaffold was erected, two coffins were placed on the platform, the ropes were dangling from the cross beam above. I had seen men shot, and whipped, and shaved, and branded at Corinth and Tupelo, and one poor fellow named Wright shot at Shelbyville. They had all been horrid scenes to me, but they were Rebels, and like begets like. I did not know when it would be my time to be placed in the same position, you see, and "a fellow feeling makes us wondrous kind." I did not know what was in store in the future for me. Ah, there was the rub, don't you see. This shooting business wasn't a pleasant thing to think about. But Yankees-that was different. I wanted to see a Yankee spy hung. I wouldn't mind that. I would like to see him agonize. A spy; O, yes, they had hung one of our regiment at Pulaski-Sam Davis. Yes, I would see the hanging. After a while I saw a guard approach, and saw two little boys in their midst, but did not see the Yankees that I had been looking for. The two little boys were rushed upon the platform. I saw that they were handcuffed. "Are they spies?" I was appalled; I was horrified; nay, more, I was sick at heart. One was about fourteen and the other about sixteen years old, I should judge. The ropes were promptly adjusted around their necks by the provost marshal. The youngest one began to beg and cry and plead most piteously. It was horrid. The older one kicked him, and told him to stand up and show the Rebels how a Union man could die for his country. Be a man! The charges and specifications were then read. The props were knocked out and the two boys were dangling in the air. I turned off sick at heart.

Canada being but a stone's throw across the Detroit River, and even closer across the broad Prairies of the mid-west, I include from it history a more recent well known case.

Steven Truscott was convicted of the murder of his classmate Lynne Harper in 1959, when only 14 years of age, and was sentenced to death by the judge despite a jury recommendation for mercy. Upon the failure of his appeal in 1960, and in line with the de facto abolishment of the death penalty in Canada about that time, his sentence was commuted by the Government of Canada to life imprisonment.

In 2007 his conviction was overturned by the Ontario Court of Appeal upon consideration of modern forensic evidence obtained by exhuming Harper's body; though the court was unable to make a declaration of factual innocence based upon that evidence.

10 Of The Youngest Children Sentenced to Death

It seems juveniles are being tried as adults at increasing rates, in spite of widely accepted science telling us that the human brain – specifically the prefrontal cortex responsible for planning, imp

It seems juveniles are being tried as adults at increasing rates, in spite of widely accepted science telling us that the human brain – specifically the prefrontal cortex responsible for planning, impulse control and predicting consequences – doesn't finish its development until around age 25. And although the execution of juveniles has been prohibited by various international treaties for some time, the United States was actually one of the last nations to officially ban the practice. Not until 2005's Roper v. Simmons did the U.S. Supreme Court determine the execution of juveniles violated the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment.

Most people would more closely associate the execution of juveniles with nations such as Iran, Saudi Arabia and Sudan. In fact, under Sharia Law – the generally illegal but still commonly-practiced religious laws based on the Islamic Koran – a "man" as young as 14 years, 5 months may be executed for a crime, while a "woman" as young as 8 years, 8 months may receive a capital sentence. According to the Organization of Women Against Execution, Iran's Islamic regime executed 187 juvenile females between 1981 and 1990, including nine girls between the ages of 10 and 13. And in undeveloped countries that lack a birth registry, an offender may find it difficult to prove their juvenile status.

But the western world actually shares a long history of sentencing children to death, as well. There have been multiple instances of children receiving the death penalty since America was colonized, following the lead of its mother England that once executed an 8-year-old boy convicted of arson and a 7-year-old for petty theft. The earliest recorded execution of an American juvenile occurred in 1642, when 16-year-old Thomas Granger of Plymouth Colony was hanged after he was discovered to have had sexual encounters with a cow, a mare, two goats, five sheep, two calves and a turkey. Between Granger's execution and 1972, the United States executed 344 juveniles, including at least 39 between the ages of 10 and 15 at the time of their crimes.

Here are 10 of the Youngest Children Sentenced to Death.

How old was the youngest white person sentenced to death in the U.S.A? - History

The gruesome details surrounding the racist murder of James Byrd Jr. have evoked widespread anger and an understandable popular revulsion towards John William King, the young white man convicted earlier this week for the dragging death of the 49-year-old black man last June in Jasper, Texas. On Tuesday the jury, made up of 11 whites and one black, convicted King, 24, after deliberating little more than two hours. Two days later the same jury sentenced him to death.

The fact that a largely white Southern jury would swiftly convict a racist killer is a measure of the change in social attitudes in America. Thirty years ago those who lynched a black man in the South had little fear of being convicted, or even facing trial. This change in thinking among layers of the population is due largely to the great social struggles against segregation and for civil rights, from the 1950s on, which have taken deep root among working people.

This was reflected in the attitude of the jury, which elected its lone black member as foreman, and of King's father, a retired sawmill worker, who apologized to the Byrd family again after the conviction. Byrd's relatives welcomed his gesture and acknowledged that King had not raised his son as a racist.

The question gripping both families, and the black and white residents of Jasper, many of whom have demonstratively expressed their opposition to racism, was how did this happen? The efforts of the prosecutors, law enforcement officers and news commentators to portray King as simply a bad individual, the embodiment of evil, does not provide a serious answer to this question. Furthermore, to suggest that this matter will be resolved by executing King means to sweep under the rug the more profound and, indeed, disturbing questions raised by this crime.

There is no doubt that King and his accomplices need to be jailed, perhaps for the rest of their lives. More fundamental, however, is the need to examine the social, ideological and political conditions that gave rise to King's white supremacist views and this crime.

The convicted killer's father, who suffers from emphysema and lost two fingers in a sawmill, told the Dallas Morning News, "The way he was raised, I don't see how he could have that kind of hate in him." The elder King said with his encouragement his son had grown up with black friends, and that he, Ronald King, has good friends and two goddaughters who are black. As the father heard witnesses testify last week about his son's participation in racist prison gangs and his role in the dragging death of Byrd, Ronald King said, "That ain't the boy I knew."

It is worthwhile to examine John William King's transformation, if only in brief. Born in Mississippi, the poorest state in the US, he was adopted when he was three months old. Shortly afterwards Ronald King and his wife moved their son and two daughters to east Texas, an impoverished rural area. They settled in Jasper, a racially mixed town of 8,000 dependent on timber, light manufacturing and bass fishing.

When King was 15 his mother died and the father raised three children on his income from a plywood mill. At the age of 17 King was arrested for burglary and dropped out of Jasper High School. Soon afterwards he was in trouble again when he and another 17-year-old drop-out (Shawn Berry, who has also been charged in the murder of James Byrd Jr.) were caught stealing beer and pool cues from a local vending machine company.

The two young men were first sent to a correctional boot camp, one of the more recent innovations of the US juvenile justice system where youth are subjected to military-style discipline. After King was released he drifted, mostly without a job, and a few months later was back in court over a conflict with his probation officer. This time the judge revoked King's probation and sentenced him to an eight-year prison sentence. In 1995 the 20-year-old King found himself in the Beto I Unit, a 3,200-inmate penitentiary in Tennessee County, Texas.

In America the very idea that youthful offenders can or should be rehabilitated has come to be derided. Instead judges impose ever-harsher sentences, and once inside the "correctional system" these young people are subjected to dehumanizing punishment by sadistic authorities. The US incarcerates the highest percentage of its population of any country in the industrialized world.

America's overflowing prisons are a breeding ground for the white supremacist elements with whom King began to associate. As one former inmate from a Huntsville, Texas prison said, "The problem is the huge influx of young convicts with unimaginably long sentences, who are angry and afraid and all too willing to band together in groups with racial or geographical bonds. They cloak their despair in rage, and they act out that rage on anyone not of their group."

Prison guards and officials encourage a brutal struggle for survival between white, black and Hispanic prisoners and do little to stop even the most murderous confrontations. At the same time, as the correctional system has focused on warehousing prisoners instead of rehabilitation, funding has been slashed for higher learning and other programs in prisons. But as another inmate commented, "The human mind needs to be occupied to overcome ignorance."

In prison King met Lawrence Brewer, the third suspect in the murder of Byrd. They both became associated with a small circle of inmates using the name of the North Carolina-based Ku Klux Klan faction, the Confederate Knights of America. They were involved in a racial conflict between white and Hispanic prisoners in 1995. Soon King was sending out letters proclaiming racist views and his allegiance to the Aryan Brotherhood, a white supremacist gang founded in California's San Quentin prison in the 1960s, which is affiliated to the paramilitary Aryan Nations.

According to the Anti-Defamation League, many white supremacist and anti-Semitic groups provide prisoners free or heavily discounted copies of their publications, and other readers of these racist magazines are encouraged to write to these "prisoners of war." Many of these publications espouse the racist theology of the Christian Identity movement, a church which maintains that Anglo-Saxons, not Jews, are the biblical "chosen people," that non-whites are "mud people" on the level of animals and that Jews are the "children of Satan."

A fellow inmate testified that King, who adorned his body with racist tattoos in prison, had vowed to kidnap and kill a black man when he got free as part of a gang initiation rite, known behind bars as a "blood tie." Prosecutors say King wanted to attract attention and recruits to a racist group he planned to start in Jasper.

It takes a great deal to condition a human being to be able to chain a man to the back of a truck, drag him behind the vehicle for miles, then leave his dismembered and decapitated body outside a black cemetery. The systematic dehumanization King experienced in prison, along with the racial poison to which he was introduced, were essential psychological components in the motivation of this heinous crime. But they were not the only factors.

Prison life is, perhaps, only the most concentrated form of the brutal society that exists in America. Human compassion and empathy are denounced as weakness and every aspect of life is dominated by a struggle of the individual against all others.

In the workplace, thousands of are thrown out of their jobs for the good of wealthy stockholders. Political authorities utilize the most violent methods to deal with intractable social problems. In Texas, a death row population overwhelmingly comprised of the poor, minorities and the mentally impaired is systematically executed. In New York City policemen fire 41 bullets into the body of a frightened, unarmed African immigrant. And, finally, the nightly news brings the latest reports of US "air strikes" in a distant country.

Perhaps the most explosive ingredients in this mixture are the worsening social and economic conditions affecting large sections of the population. Despite the repeated claims by the Clinton White House and the news media of America's booming economy, tens of millions in towns like Jasper are enduring a desperate situation.

King, Brewer and Berry--like many young workers, black and white--drifted from one low-paying job to another with no future. They became the raw material for racist organizations which blame these economic problems on blacks and Hispanics.

Such political tendencies are deliberately cultivated by sections of the American ruling class. Indeed, having abandoned any efforts at reform, both big business parties have increasingly turned to law-and-order demagogy and attacks on welfare recipients and immigrants, which encourage the revival and spread of race prejudice.

This holds true particularly for the Republican Party, which has actively courted right-wing militia groups and has close ties with racist organizations such as the Council of Conservative Citizens. In the state of Mississippi, John William King's birthplace, one third of the state legislators, both Democrats and Republicans, are affiliated with this racist organization, as well as the state's most powerful politician, Trent Lott, the Majority Leader of the US Senate.

Trent Lott may not speak to the John William Kings of this world. The Southern aristocracy generally keeps its distance from those it regards as "white trash." But he speaks to the CCC (the "respectable" version of the KKK), and the CCC stokes up the Kings and turns their social anger in the most reactionary direction. These are the real connections, never discussed in the mass media, between the horrible events in Jasper and the social antagonisms in America.

Granville Ritchie, who murdered 9-year-old Tampa girl, sentenced to death by judge

TAMPA — Felecia Demerson stood in a courtroom Friday and faced the man convicted of raping and killing her 9-year-old daughter more than six years ago. She wore a uniform of grief and remembrance: a black dress, affixed with a glittering Hello Kitty pin, her daughter Felecia Williams' favorite character a black facemask, printed with her daughter’s face.

Demerson told a judge about the medications she has to take to get through the day, the sleep she’s lost. She and other family members detailed the unending pain 41-year-old Granville Ritchie had brought to her family.

But the color she wore didn’t only signal perpetual mourning, she told Judge Michelle Sisco, who was tasked Friday with deciding whether to take a jury’s recommendation, now nearly a year old, that Ritchie be put to death for his crimes.

“I just want to say that I’ve waited 2,310 days for this day to come,” Demerson said. “I am here to stand as a wounded mother. I’m here wearing all black, because I’m here to bury (Ritchie) today.”

She said her only regret was that Ritchie couldn’t be hanged, to feel the same thing her daughter felt while he strangled her.

Sisco sentenced Ritchie to death Friday morning. She found that the aggravating factors that make capital punishment necessary — Felecia’s age, that Ritchie killed her while he sexually battered her and that Ritchie exhibited “extreme or outrageous depravity” in the tortuous killing — far outweighed the mitigating factors the defense presented.

“There will be no corporeal redemption for you — your physical being, your person,” Sisco said after sentencing Ritchie, who did not speak. “You will remain incarcerated until the date of your death is scheduled to occur.”

The jury last September found Ritchie guilty of first-degree murder, capital sexual battery and aggravated child abuse in the death of Felecia.

But court procedures and statewide court shutdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic delayed the formal sentencing hearing for nearly a year.

Ritchie was a stranger to 9-year-old Felecia Williams, who lived in east Tampa. But they both knew Eboni Wiley. She was a neighbor and friend to Felecia’s family and considered herself a mother-like figure to the girl. Wiley met Ritchie in early May 2014 and was instantly smitten.

On May 16, 2014, Felecia left home with Wiley. They went with Ritchie to his mother’s apartment in the Doral Oaks complex in Temple Terrace. Once there, Ritchie sent Wiley to go buy marijuana, leaving the girl with him alone.

When Wiley returned about 50 minutes later, she found Ritchie alone. He claimed he’d given the girl money to go buy candy at a nearby CVS store and she had not returned.

Prosecutors believe Ritchie raped and strangled the girl while Wiley was gone. They believe he concealed her body in a suitcase, then later that night drove to the Courtney Campbell Causeway where he dumped her, nude, into the bay.

Wiley initially told Temple Terrace police that Felecia had run off while she and Ritchie had sex in a bedroom. But after the girl’s body was found the next day, she admitted she lied. Wiley was a star witness at Ritchie’s trial. She remains charged with lying during a missing person investigation. She is scheduled to face trial next month and could face up to five years in prison if convicted.

Ritchie’s attorney, Bjorn Brunvand, had argued that several mitigating factors should prevent Ritchie from being put to death. Sisco accepted some of those arguments — Ritchie’s abusive and violent childhood in Kingston, Jamaica his lack of prior criminal history — but dismissed others, including the assertion that Ritchie was under emotional and mental duress when he killed Felecia. And the mitigating factors she did accept didn’t negate the heinousness of the crime, she said.

Sisco had already prepared her sentencing statement when Friday’s hearing began, but before reading it, she opened the court to statements. Several of Felecia’s family members spoke. Nobody spoke in Ritchie’s favor.

“She meant the world. She meant the world to us. And he discarded her like she was nothing,” Felecia’s sister, Shakeila Givens, said, before speaking directly to Ritchie. “Your day has come. God got you now.”

Felecia’s father, Jerome Rodriguez Williams, invoked his own legal tribulations and urged Ritchie to ask Demerson for forgiveness, and to pray for it. He said he forgave him.

“I love you,” he said. “You’re a child of God. But don’t play with him. If you play with him, he’s going to destroy you.”

State Attorney Andrew Warren, speaking after the sentencing, said the state was satisfied with the decision.

“In Florida, we reserve the death penalty for the worst of the worst offenders,” he said. “And if the brutal rape and murder of a 9-year-old doesn’t meet that definition, I don’t know what does.”

Many of the family members who appeared in court Friday spoke through tears. At one point, so did Sisco, as she addressed Demerson.

“I’m in awe of your bravery and your tireless advocacy for your daughter, and the fact that you were able to sit through this trial with the horrific facts, you’re a better, stronger woman than I am,” she said. “What has been asked of you to bear in this life is more than really should be asked of any human being.”

Executions Under the Federal Death Penalty

Sixteen people have been executed since the reinstatement of the federal death penalty in 1988. View a list of earlier executions here.

Timothy McVeigh, White male, executed on June 11, 2001. McVeigh was convicted and sentenced to death in June 1997, for the bombing of an Oklahoma City federal building in 1995, in which 168 people were killed. McVeigh waived his collateral appeals, and the Government set McVeigh’s execution on May 16, 2001. McVeigh was granted a 30-day stay of execution by Attorney General John Ashcroft after it was discovered that the FBI had failed to disclose more than 3,000 pages of document to McVeigh’s defense team. McVeigh’s co-defendant, Terry Nichols, was capitally prosecuted by the federal government in a separate trial. In December 1997, he was convicted by the jury and sentenced to life without parole. Nichols was later capitally tried in Oklahoma state court for the murders of the 161 non-federal employees in Oklahoma City. In May 2004, he was convicted, and the jury deadlocked and he was sentenced to life in prison without parole. (Terry Nichols Fast Facts, CNN Library Oklahoma City Bombing Fast Facts, CNN Library.)

Juan Raul Garza, Latino male, executed on June 19, 2001. Garza, a marijuana distributor, was convicted and sentenced to death in August 1993, in Texas for the murders of three other drug traffickers. Garza was denied review by the U.S. Supreme Court in late 1999 and was facing an execution date of August 5, 2000. The date was postponed until the Justice Department finished drafting guidelines for federal death row inmates seeking presidential clemency, which were issued in early August. Garza was offered the opportunity to apply for clemency under the new guidelines and a new execution date of Dec. 12, 2000 was set. In December 2000, President Clinton again delayed Garza’s execution for at least six months to allow further study of the fairness of the federal death penalty. (In Death, Garza Seeks Forgiveness, ABC News, June 19, 2001.)

Louis Jones, Black male, executed on March 18, 2003. Jones was sentenced to death in November 1995 in Texas for the kidnap/murder of a young white female soldier. The United States Supreme Court granted review of the case and heard arguments on February 22, 1999. The Supreme Court affirmed the conviction on June 21, 1999. Jones, a decorated Gulf War veteran who had no prior criminal record, claimed that his exposure to nerve gas in Iraq and post-traumatic stress from his combat tours contributed to his murder of Pvt. Tracie Joy McBride in Texas. President George W. Bush refused Jones’ clemency request. (Associated Press, U.S. Executes Gulf War Veteran Who Raped and Killed a Soldier, NY Times, March 19, 2003.)

Daniel Lewis Lee, White male, executed on July 14, 2020. Daniel Lewis Lee and co-defendant Chevie Kehoe were convicted in 1999 of killing Nancy Mueller, her husband William Mueller, and her 8-year-old daughter Sarah Powell. Lee sought executive clemency with the support of Mueller’s family, the prosecutor, and the judge who tried him in an Arkansas federal court. They all believed that executing Lee would be a miscarriage of justice given the life sentence imposed on his much more culpable co-defendant. Judge G. Thomas Eisele described Kehoe as the “ringleader,” and trial testimony showed that Kehoe killed Sarah Powell after Lee refused, saying he would not kill a child. (Mark Berman, Trump administration carries out first federal execution since 2003 after late-night Supreme Court intervention, The Washington Post, July 14, 2020.)

Wesley Ira Purkey, White male, executed on July 16, 2020. Wesley Purkey was sentenced to death in Missouri federal court in 2003 for the kidnapping, rape, and murder of a Kansas City, Missouri, teenager. Lawyers for Purkey argued he was incompetent to be executed because he had Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and traumatic brain injuries that “render[ed] him unable to rationally understand the reason the United States seeks to execute him.” Court filings catalogue a lifelong history of trauma and mental illness that have contributed to his current condition. He experienced sexual, physical, and emotional abuse beginning at age 5, and began using alcohol and drugs as a child. He has been diagnosed with numerous mental illnesses, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression, and has multiple documented suicide attempts. (Vic Ryckaert, Elizabeth DePompei, and Justin L. Mack, Wesley Ira Purkey executed in Terre Haute, 2nd man put to death this week, Indianapolis Star, July 16, 2020.)

Dustin Lee Honken, white male, executed on July 17, 2020. Dustin Lee Honken was sentenced to death for the murder of two girls in Iowa in 1993. Although the State of Iowa does not have the death penalty, Honken was convicted and sentenced to death in federal court. Honken challenged constitutional errors in his trial and sentencing. During his trial, a number of jailhouse informants provided testimony, which Honken later challenged based on evidence that the informants had coordinated their testimony and that the government withheld evidence that could have been used to impeach their credibility. He also argued that his attorneys failed to adequately investigate his dysfunctional family background and present evidence of how his upbringing led to mental health problems. (Tyler J. Davis, Live updates: Higher courts rebuff late legal efforts, Iowan Dustin Honken put to death, Des Moines Register, July 17, 2020.)

Lezmond Mitchell,Native American male, executed on August 26, 2020. Mitchell and his co-defendants (including a juvenile) allegedly got a ride from a woman and her 9 year old granddaughter in Arizona. They killed both victims and stole the car supposedly for use in an armed robbery. Each victim was stabbed at a separate location. The Attorney General authorized a capital prosecution against Mitchell under a carjacking theory — although the murders occurred on Navajo tribal land and the tribe had not “opted in” to the federal death penalty. Attorney General Ashcroft directed that the case be tried capitally without consulting the tribal government. Mitchell was found guilty on May 20, and sentenced to death on September 15, 2003.

Keith Nelson, White male, executed on August 28, 2020. Nelson was convicted of kidnapping a girl from her Kansas home and murdering her in Missouri. On November 28, 2001 a jury recommended the death penalty for Nelson, and on March 11, 2002, a federal judge imposed the death penalty.

William LeCroy, Jr., White male, executed on September 22, 2020. A jury sentenced LeCroy to death in the 2001 carjacking and murder of a North Georgia woman and the court accepted the jury’s recommendation. The carjacking was the sole basis for federal jurisdiction in the case. LeCroy’s lawyers argued that the murder took place inside the victim’s house before the vehicle was stolen, and thus did not constitute a carjacking resulting in death, as required under the federal statute. However, the trial court read the death-penalty statute expansively and the appeals court affirmed that interpretation of the statute.

Christopher Vialva, Black male (biracial), executed on September 24, 2020. Vialva and his co-defendant Brandon Bernard were convicted and sentenced to death in June 2000 for the carjacking and murder of a white couple on a remote parcel of federal land near Fort Hood in central Texas. Vialva was 19 years old at the time of the murders, and Bernard was 18. Four younger teenagers, aged 15 and 16, also pled guilty to federal charges relating to the crime. Vialva was the first African American executed in the modern era of the federal death penalty and the first person in 72 years to be executed by the federal government for a crime committed while he was a teenager.

Orlando Hall, Black male, executed on November 19, 2020. Hall was charged alongside Bruce Webster in Fort Worth, Texas with the abduction, sexual assault, and beating murder of a 16-year-old black female. They were tried separately. Hall was sentenced to death in November 1995. Webster was sentenced to death in June 1996.

Brandon Bernard, Black male, executed on December 10, 2020. A federal jury in Waco, TX, convicted Bernard and his co-defendant Christopher Vialva in June 2000, of carjacking and the murder of an Iowa couple on a remote parcel of federal land near Fort Hood in central Texas. Both were sentenced to death. Bernard was 18 years old at the time of the murders, and is the youngest offender on federal death row in more than 70 years. Vialva, who was 19-years-old at the time of his offense, was executed on September 24, 2020. Four younger teenagers also pled guilty to federal charges relating to the crime.

Alfred Bourgeois, Black male, executed on December 11, 2020. In March 2004, a jury recommended a death sentence for Alfred Bourgeois for the 2002 murder of his daughter at the Corpus Christi Naval Air Station in Texas, based in part on the testimony of a prisoner housed with Bourgeois.

Lisa Montgomery, White female, executed on January 13, 2021. On Oct. 26, 2007, a jury in Kansas City, Missouri recommended a death sentence for Montgomery following her conviction for kidnapping and killing Bobbie Jo Stinnett, also white, and stealing her unborn baby. Montgomery took the baby with her to Kansas and claimed the baby was her child. (Kansas City Star, Oct. 26, 2007). Montgomery was formally sentenced to death on April 4, 2008 in U.S. District Court. (Topeka Capital-Journal, Apr. 3, 2008). She became the third woman on the federal death row.

Corey Johnson, Black male, executed on January 14, 2021.Johnson was a member of an inner-city gang in Richmond, VA. He was sentenced to death in February 1993 for his participation in a series of drug-related murders. Execution dates were set for Johnson and his two co-defendants in May 2006, but the executions were stayed because of a challenge to the lethal injection process.

Dustin John Higgs, Black male, executed on January 16, 2021. Higgs was convicted in October 2000 of ordering the 1996 murder of three Maryland women after arguing with one of them in his apartment. The triggerman, Willis Mark Haynes, was convicted in May 2000 and sentenced to life plus 45 years in prison. Higgs’s case was the third death penalty prosecution in Maryland since the federal death penalty was reinstated in 1988, but marked the first time a jury imposed the death penalty. (Washington Post, 10/27/00). The prosecution witness who testified that Higgs ordered him to commit the killings later recanted his testimony and Higgs insisted up until the moment of the execution that he was innocent of the murders.

Nelson, 45, was executed for the 1999 rape and murder of a 10-year-old Kansas girl.

Pamela Butler had been rollerblading in front of her home when Nelson abducted her, according to the DoJ. He raped her before strangling her to death with a wire and burying her body in a forest behind a church.

"The execution of Keith Nelson did not make the world a safer place," his attorneys Dale Baich and Jen Moreno said. "Over the years, we have come to know Keith as someone who was different than the person who committed the horrible crime to which he admitted and pled guilty to in 2001. We saw his humanity, his compassion, and his sense of humor."

List of Federal Death-Row Prisoners

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a prisoner in a federal prison.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in an armed bank robbery during which a bank guard was killed. (Co-defendant of Norris Holder.)

Barnette, Marcivicci Aquilia

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of his ex-girlfriend, as well as another man in a carjacking.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal shooting of a state police officer who was serving a ‘no-knock’ warrant on his house for suspicion of drug activity. Death sentence reversed by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit on January 19, 2021 for ineffective assistance of counsel in the penalty phase of trial. Awaiting determination of whether federal prosecutors will pursue a capital resentencing.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the kidnapping and death of a woman following an escape from prison. (Co-defendant of Chadrick Fulks)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a prison guard.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a bank security guard during an aborted robbery attempt in St. Louis.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal stabbing of a postal worker.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a prisoner in a federal prison.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a fellow prisoner in the mental health unit of a federal prison. (Co-defendant of Charles Hall)

Convicted for actions stemming from an attempted bank robbery committed with several others during which two bank employees were killed.

Police officer convicted and sentenced to death for ordered the killing of a witness for an internal affairs investigation into a police misconduct complaint against him.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a prisoner in a federal prison.

Pled guilty to and sentenced to death for the fatal shootings of two campers on federal land.

Pled guilty and sentenced to death for the kidnapping and death of a woman following an escape from prison. (Co-defendant of Brandon Basham.)


Convicted and sentenced to death for klling a woman on federal land.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal stabbing of a fellow prisoner while incarcerated in a federal prison. (Co-defendant of Mark Snarr.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for a drug-related killing.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a fellow prisoner in the mental health unit of a federal prison. (Co-defendant of Wesley Coonce.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal shooting of a security guard during a bank robbery. (Co-defendant of Billie Allen.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal shooting of a woman while on federal property in North Carolina.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in the killings and kidnappings-for-ransom of five Russian and Georgian immigrants. (Co-defendant of Iouri Mikhel.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal shooting of a special-duty police officer during an attempted bank robbery.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in the kidnapping and death of an alleged drug dealer.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in the killings and kidnappings-for-ransom of five Russian and Georgian immigrants. (Co-defendant of Jurijus Kadamovas.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a federal grand jury witness in a Medicare fraud investigation. +

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in the robbery and killing of a retired National Park employee on federal land.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his participation in a series of drug-related killings. (Co-defendant of Corey Johnson & Richard Tipton.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of two men in drug-related incidents in Ft. Worth.

Convicted and sentenced to death for a kidnapping resulting in the death of a college student.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal shooting of nine parishioners in a church in South Carolina.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in the death of a Naval officer in a murder-for-hire plot in Newport News.

Pled guilty to the separate carjacking and killing of two men, and sentenced to death for the death of one of the victims.

Convicted and sentenced to death for involvement in the drug-related killing of a family, including two children. (Co-defendant of Daniel Troya.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the kidnapping resulting in death of a 12-year old girl.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his involvement in the killings of 12 people in connection with a drug enterprise.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal stabbing of a fellow prisoner while incarcerated in a federal prison. (Co-defendant of Edgar Garcia.)

Convicted and sentenced to death for the carjacking, kidnapping, and death of a restaurant owner.

Convicted and sentenced to death for his participation in a series of drug-related killings. (Co-defendant of Corey Johnson & James H. Roane, Jr.)

Ex-marine convicted and sentenced to death for the killing of a fellow service member.

Convicted and sentenced to death for involvement in the drug-related killings of a family, including two children. (Co-defendant of Ricardo Sanchez, Jr.)

Convicted for offenses committed in the Boston Marathon bombing and sentenced to death for two of the victims killed. Death sentence overturned by U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit on July 31, 2020 based upon the trial court’s failure to question jurors on the substance of the pretrial publicity to which they were exposed.

Convicted and sentenced to death for the fatal shooting of two brothers in a North Carolina restaurant.

Note: Names in [ ] are defendants whose conviction or death sentence have been reversed by the courts but the reversal is not yet final, or who are awaiting capital retrials or resentencings after an initial conviction or death sentence was overturned. Those awaiting retrial or resentencing are marked with a caret (^). From time to time, this list may include defendants whose cases are marked with an asterisk (*). This indicates that the defendant has received a verdict of death from the jury, but the judge has not yet issued a formal sentence. In the federal system, the judge is obliged to follow a unanimous jury recommendation. (Source: Federal Capital Habeas Project.)

Because of different definitions of what constitutes being “on death row,” some organizations such as the Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel or the Bureau of Justice Statistics may have a slightly different list of those currently under federal sentence of death. The DPIC total includes individuals whose capital convictions and/or death sentences have been overturned and who face continuing jeopardy of the death penalty until their retrial or resentencing proceedings are completed, although those individuals do not have a valid death sentence and are presumed innocent of the death penalty.

Famous Cases

“DC sniper”: John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo were both tried in Virginia for a series of shootings in October 2002. Although the crimes occurred in Maryland and Washington, DC, as well as Virginia, the first trials were held in Virginia, in part, because Virginia allowed the execution of juveniles. Malvo was 17 at the time of the crimes. Muhammad was executed on November 10, 2009. Malvo is serving a sentence of life in prison without parole.

Daryl Atkins was sentenced to death for the abduction and murder of Eric Nesbitt. Atkins appealed his sentence, claiming that his intellectual disability made him ineligible for execution. Atkins’ appeal was heard by the Supreme Court in Atkins v. Virginia (2002), and the Court held that the execution of “mentally retarded” defendants is unconstitutional. At a subsequent hearing to determine whether Atkins was eligible for the death penalty, the jury credited controversial prosecution evidence and rejected Atkins’ claim of intellectual disability. However, after it was disclosed that evidence had been improperly withheld from the defense in the case, the prosecution agreed to withdraw the death penalty and Atkins was resentenced to life without parole.

10 Convicts Presumed Innocent After Execution

English jurist William Blackstone once said, &ldquoBetter that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer.&rdquo Even lawyers are indoctrinated with this concept early in law school. Whether you support with the death penalty or not, most individuals would agree with the statement above. Despite the United State&rsquos innocent-until-proven-guilty legal system, there are several cases where a presumably innocent person is convicted of a crime, some even put to death. Sadly, we may never get a chance to find out the truth. The recent inclusion of DNA evidence in trials has been used in some cases to clear many people falsely convicted. There are ten recent cases of people who are now presumed, but not proven, to be innocent and one bonus inclusion.

In February 1983, Wanda Lopez, was stabbed to death during her night shift at the gas station where she worked. After a brief manhunt, police found De Luna hiding under a pick-up truck. Recently released from prison, he was violating his parole by drinking in public. De Luna immediately told police that he was innocent and he offered the name of the person who he saw at the gas station. Police ignored the fact that he did not have a drop of blood on him even though the crime scene was covered in blood. De Luna was arrested too soon after the crime to clean himself up. The single eyewitness to the crime, Kevin Baker, confirmed to police that De Luna was the murderer after police told him he was the right guy.

At trial De Luna named Carlos Hernandez as the man he saw inside the gas station, across the street from the bar where De Luna had been drinking. Hernandez and DeLuna were strikingly similar in appearance but, unlike DeLuna, Hernandez had a long history of knife attacks similar to the convenience store killing and repeatedly told friends and relatives that he had committed the murder. Friends confirmed that he was romantically linked to Lopez as well. De Luna&rsquos lawyers knew of Hernandez&rsquos criminal past but never thoroughly investigated his previous crimes. On December 7, 1989, Texas executed 27-year old Carlos De Luna.

On June 26, 1980 in St. Louis, Missouri, 19-year-old Quintin Moss was killed in a drive-by shooting while allegedly dealing drugs on a street corner. The conviction was based largely on the testimony from Robert Fitzgerald, a white career criminal, who was at the scene at the time of the murder. He testified that he saw three black men in the car when shots were fired and that Griffin shot the victim through the window of the car with his right hand. This was Griffin&rsquos attorney&rsquos first murder trial and he did not challenge the testimony even though Griffin was left-handed. He also failed to bring forth an alibi witness who was with Griffin at the time of the murder.

Griffin&rsquos fingerprints were not found on the car or the weapon &ndash all evidence against him was circumstantial. There is evidence that suggests Fitzgerald was promised a reduce sentence in exchange for his testimony. The prosecution also failed to address that there were two other witnesses who confirmed that Griffin did not commit the murder and they were able to name the three men who did.Appeals courts upheld his conviction and death sentence. Griffin was executed by lethal injection on June 21, 1995. Griffin maintained his innocence right up to his execution. In 2005, a professor University of Michigan Law School reopened the case. His investigation concluded that Griffin was innocent.

On the night of November 8, 1984, Ruben Cantu and his friend David Garza, broke into a vacant San Antonio house under construction and robbed two men at gunpoint. The two victims, Pedro Gomez and Juan Moreno, had been workmen sleeping on floor mattresses at a construction site, guarding against burglary. As they tried to take their cash, they were interrupted by Gomez&rsquos attempt to retrieve a pistol hidden under his mattress. The boys shot both men killing Gomez instantly. Thinking they had killed both men, the two teens then fled the scene.

The police showed Moreno photos of suspects, which included Cantu&rsquos picture, and he was unable to identify his attacker. On the basis of no physical evidence, no confession, and only Moreno&rsquos subsequently recanted testimony, a jury convicted Ruben Cantu of first-decree murder. Juan Moreno now says that he had felt pressure from the police to finger Cantu. David Garza, Cantu&rsquos codefendant, has since admitted involvement in the burglary, assault and murder. He says he did go inside the house with another boy, did participate in the robbery, and saw the murder take place, but that his accomplice was not Ruben Cantu.On August 24, 1993, Ruben Cantu at the age of 26, was executed by lethal injection. His final request was for a piece of bubble gum, which was denied.

In 1982, David Spence was accused of the rape and murder of two 17-year-old girls and one 18-year-old boy in Waco, Texas. He received the death penalty in two trials for the murders. Muneer Deeb, a convenience store owner, hired Spence to do the murders and he was also charged and sentenced to death. He received a new trial in 1993 and was later acquitted.

The prosecution built its case against Spence around bite marks that a state expert said matched Spence&rsquos teeth and jailhouse snitches. Two of the six jailhouse witnesses who testified at trial later recanted, saying they were given cigarettes, television and alcohol privileges, and conjugal visits for their testimonies. Spence&rsquos post-conviction lawyers had a blind panel study in which five experts said the bite marks could not be matched to Spence&rsquos. Even the original homicide investigator on the case said he had serious doubts about Spence&rsquos guilt and a former Waco police detective involved in the case said he did not think Spence committed the crime. David Spence was executed by lethal injection on April 14, 1997.

On the morning of February 20, 1976, Highway Patrol officer, Phillip Black, and Donald Irwin, approached a car parked at a rest stop for a routine check. Tafero, his partner Sonia &ldquoSunny&rdquo Jacobs, and Walter Rhodes were found asleep inside. Black saw a gun lying on the floor inside the car so he woke the occupants and had them come out of the car. According to Rhodes, Tafero then shot both Black and Irwin with the gun, which was illegally registered to Jacobs, led the others into the police car and fled the scene. All three were arrested after being caught in a roadblock. The gun was found in Tafero&rsquos waistband.

At their trial, Rhodes testified that Tafero and Jacobs were solely responsible for the murders. Tafero and Jacobs were convicted of capital murder and sentenced to death while Rhodes was sentenced to 3 life sentences. Rhodes was eventually released in 1994 following parole for good behavior. Because the jury had recommended a life sentence for Jacobs, the court commuted Jacobs&rsquo sentence to life in prison, but not Tafero&rsquos. She was later released after agreeing to a plea bargain. Prior to his release, Rhodes confessed several times to lying about his involvement in the shooting. Even Sunny Jacobs claimed that Rhodes, not Tafero, carried out the shooting as well. Rhodes was the only person on which traces of gunpowder were found. Tafero was executed by electric chair on May 4, 1990. The chair malfunctioned causing the process to take over 13 minutes.

Ellis Wayne Felker was a suspect in the 1981 disappearance of a Georgia woman, Evelyn Joy Ludlum who was working her way through college as a cocktail waitress. He was put under police surveillance for 2 weeks, during which time Ludlum&rsquos body was found in a creek, raped, stabbed and murdered. An autopsy performed by an untrained technician found that the body had been dead for five days. This information was later changed after realizing this would eliminate Felker as a suspect. Independent autopsies found that the body had been dead no more than three days.

In 1996, Felker&rsquos attorneys discovered boxes of evidence that had been unlawfully withheld by the prosecution including DNA evidence and a written confession by another suspect. Even the presiding judge in one of Felker&rsquos trials stated that his right to a fair trial had been severely compromised. Despite all this mounting evidence and doubts of his guilt, the Georgia Supreme Court denied Felker a new trial nor gave the defense more time to sort through the mounds of evidence to argue for exoneration. Felker was executed by electrocution November 15, 1996 at the age of 48. In 2000, a Georgia judge ruled that DNA testing would be performed in the first-ever attempt by a court to exonerate an executed person in the United States. The results were ruled as inconclusive.

On May 23, 1981 in Jacksonville, FL, police officer Thomas Szafranski killed when shots were fired at his police cruiser when he was stopped at an intersection. Within minutes, police officers busted into Leo Jones&rsquo apartment where they found Jones and his cousin, Bobby Hammonds. Police took both men in for questioning and then charged Jones, who they claimed had confessed. Hammonds gave a statement, saying he saw Jones leave the apartment with a rifle and return after he heard some gunshots.In 1997, a retired police officer, Cleveland Smith, came forward and said the officer that arrested Jones had bragged that he beat Jones after his arrest. Smith, who described the officer as an &ldquoenforcer&rdquo, testified that he once watched him get a confession from a suspect through torture. Smith claimed that he waited so long to come forward with this evidence because he wanted to secure his pension.

More than a dozen people had implicated another man as the killer, saying they either saw him carrying a rifle as he ran from the crime scene or heard him brag he had shot the officer. Even Florida Supreme Court Justice Leander Shaw wrote that Jones&rsquo case had become &ldquoa horse of a different color&rdquo. Newly discovered evidence, Shaw wrote, &ldquocasts serious doubt on Jones&rsquo guilt.&rdquo Shaw and one other judge voted to grant Jones a new trial. However, a five-judge majority ruled against him. Jones was executed by electric chair on March 24, 1998.

In 1991, a fire occurred at Cameron Todd Willingham&rsquos home in Texas killing his three young daughters. Willingham escaped the fire with minor injuries and his then-wife was not home at the time. Prosecutors charged Willingham with starting the fire in an attempt to cover up his abuse of his girls. This is despite the wife&rsquos testimony that he had never abused the children and, in fact, &ldquospoiled them rotten.&rdquo While laboratory tests verified that an accelerant was used only near the front porch, the prosecutors alleged that the fluid was deliberately poured near the front porch, children&rsquos bedroom, and in the hallway to start the fire and impede rescue attempts. Gerald Hurst, who has a PhD in chemistry, reputed claims that the extreme heat of the fire meant that an accelerant was used. The Board of Pardons and Paroles received Hurst&rsquos argument but still denied Willingham clemency.

Willingham was deemed an &ldquoextremely severe sociopath&rdquo by a psychiatrist using only Willingham&rsquos Iron Maiden and Led Zeppelin posters as indications of his fascination with violence and death. Witness testimony during the fire was contradictory and inconclusive. During his trial in August 1992, Willingham was offered a life term in exchange for a guilty plea, which he turned down insisting he was innocent. Willingham was executed by lethal injection on February 17, 2004. In June 2009 the State of Texas ordered an unprecedented re-examination of the case and may issue a ruling on it at a later date.

In 1985, Helen Schartner was raped and murdered by strangulation outside a nightclub in Virginia Beach. At the time of the murder, O&rsquoDell was already on parole for kidnapping and robbery convictions in Florida. O&rsquoDell chose to represent himself during the trial and he was convicted of the murder in based solely on blood evidence and the testimony of a jailhouse &ldquosnitch.&rdquo There was nothing else linking O&rsquoDell to the crime.

For much of the decade that followed, O&rsquoDell&rsquos unsuccessful appeals went to the Virginia Supreme Court, Federal District Court, and the Supreme Court, where Justice Harry Blackmun found &ldquoserious questions as to whether O&rsquoDell committed the crime.&rdquo O&rsquoDell&rsquos lawyers also had an affidavit claiming that another inmate executed in 1993, David Mark Pruett, had confessed to the crime. O&rsquoDell asked the state to conduct DNA tests on other pieces of evidence to demonstrate his innocence but was refused. An International campaign to save his life had supporters like Mother Teresa and Pope John Paul II. Both the governor of Virginia and the U.S. Supreme Court rejected last-minute pleas to spare his life and O&rsquoDell was executed by lethal injection on July 23, 1997. In 2000, the last of the DNA evidence in the O&rsquoDell case stored in the circuit court of Virginia Beach was burned without any further testing.

On September 29, 1981, Texas Department of Public Safety Officer, David Rucker, was shot and killed along a stretch of highway near the Rio Grande Valley. Around the same time, police officer Enrique Carrisalez pulled over a speeding vehicle driving away from the road where Rucker&rsquos body was found. The driver exchanged words with Carrisalez before pulling out his gun and killing the police officer. Lionel Herrera was arrested a few days later and charged with both Rucker&rsquos and Carrisalez&rsquos murders. Before he died, Carrisalez also identified Herrera as the person who shot him from a single photograph shown to him in the hospital (not a photo array). In January 1982, Herrera was tried and found guilty of the capital murder of Carrisalez, for which he was sentenced to death. Later that year, Herrera pleaded guilty to the murder of Rucker.

Herrera filed a petition for writ of habeas corpus in federal court, claiming that new evidence demonstrated he was actually innocent of the murder of Carrisalez. Herrera included four affidavits from an attorney who had represented Herrera&rsquos brother, Raul Herrera, Sr, and three others claiming that Raul Herrera, who was murdered in 1984, had told them that he had killed Rucker and Carrisalez. This lead to the Supreme Court case Herrera v. Collins where the Court ruled that new evidence demonstrating innocence did not violate the Constitution&rsquos 8th Amendment and Herrera&rsquos death sentence with upheld. Herrera was executed by lethal injection four months after the ruling. In his final statement he said: &ldquoI am innocent, innocent, innocent. . . . I am an innocent man, and something very wrong is taking place tonight.&rdquo

In 1985, Texas Tech student Michele Mallin was raped and Timothy Cole was sentenced to 25 years in prison just based on her testimony. He was offered parole if he would admit guilt, but he refused. Later, Mallin admitted she was mistaken with the identity of her attacked and in 1995, Jerry Wayne Johnson confessed to the rape. She stated that investigators botched the gathering of evidence and withheld information from her, causing her to believe that Cole was the attacker. Mallin told police that her rapist smoked during the rape. However, Cole never smoked because he had severe asthma.

When DNA evidence showed him to be innocent, he was exonerated on February 6, 2009. Cole died, however, in prison on December 2, 1999 from an asthma attack. It was the first posthumous DNA exoneration in the state of Texas.

10. Half Hangit Maggie Dickinson

Maggie was sentenced to hang on the 2 September 1724 at Edinburgh for infanticide. She had had an illegitimate child which is said to have been stillborn, but women's rights in the 1700s, like I pointed out before, weren't exactly very reassuring. When she was hanged, her body remained suspended for over 30 minutes. However, while her body was being taken away in a coffin, she started making noises and it turned out she had somehow survived. She was granted a full pardon after this spectacle and there's even a pub in her name.

Source: Source - Tripadvisor

Watch the video: Ξεσπά η ξαδέρφη του 16χρονου που πέθανε - Ήταν υγιής - Να μας πείτε από τι έφυγε


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