Carl Rowan - History

Carl Rowan - History


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Carl Rowan

1925-2000

Journalist

Carl Rowan was born in Tennesseeon August 11, 1925. He graduated Bernard High School in 1942 as class President In 1944, was among the first African-Americans to receive a commission in the US Navy. After World War II, he studied at Oberlin College and the University of Minnesota. Rowan became a reporter for the Minneapolis Tribune in 1950 and wrote books based on his travels and reporting assignments, including South of Freedom (1952), The Pitiful and the Proud (1956) and Go South to Sorrow (1957).

President Kennedy named Rowan Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for public affairs in 1961, then Ambassador to Finland in 1963. President Johnson appointed him Chief of the US Information Agency (USIA), but Rowan resigned when the USIA's radio broadcast, Voice of America, was accused of being biased in favor of the administration.

After his resignation, Rowan went back to journalism, in which he produced popular syndicated columns, acted as a television commentator, lectured and contributed to the magazine Reader's Digest.

Books

Breaking Barriers: A Memoir


History

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Rowan History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The illustrious surname Rowan is classified as a habitation surname, which was originally derived from a place-name, and is one form of surname belonging to a broader group called hereditary surnames. Habitation names were derived from pre-existing names for towns, villages, parishes, or farmsteads. Topographic names, form the other broad category of surnames that was given to a person who resided near a physical feature such as a hill, stream, church, or type of tree.

Other local names are derived from the names of houses, manors, estates, regions, and entire counties. As a general rule, the greater the distance between an individual and their homeland, the larger the territory they were named after. For example, a person who only moved to another parish would be known by the name of their original village, while people who migrated to a different country were often known by the name of a region or country from which they came. Rowan is a place-name from in Rouen, the capital of Normandy. The surname was derived from the Viscountcy of Rohan, in Brittany, in France. As a local name, it could also have been derived from the local at the rowan which referred to a residence beside a rowan-tree. Habitation names were derived from the name of the town, village or hamlet where the person originally lived.


Columnist Carl Rowan Dies at 75

The obituary of Carl T. Rowan that appeared Sept. 24 should have said his books included a biography of baseball great Jackie Robinson, not of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. An anecdote Mr. Rowan told about King was included in Rowan's autobiography, not a book about King. (Published 09/25/2000)

Carl T. Rowan, 75, a former diplomat who became one of the most prominent African American journalists and an unwavering champion of the poor and minorities, died of heart and kidney ailments yesterday at Washington Hospital Center. He had diabetes.

Rowan was a syndicated columnist whose work appeared in 100 newspapers, a radio commentator who did five broadcasts a week, the author of eight books, including biographies of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall, and a frequent lecturer.

For 30 years, he was a regular on what is now called "Inside Washington," a weekly political talk show on WUSA-TV (Channel 9). (It started in 1967 as "Agronsky and Company," named after its first host, CBS correspondent Martin Agronsky.)

A plain-spoken and direct person, Rowan used to say, "I am a crusader for racial justice, and I will be to the day I die." He gave voice to the hopes and frustrations of the country's less fortunate citizens in ways that commanded the attention and sympathy of millions of readers and that often resonated in the corridors of power.

In 1987, he founded Project Excellence, a college scholarship program for high-achieving black high school students in the greater Washington area. To date, it has distributed $26 million to 1,150 students. The project also runs a scholarship fair with the Freedom Forum that has provided an additional $66 million in scholarship money.

"To me, nothing is more beautiful than a proud, sharp-minded teenager who is beautifully articulate and determined to achieve great things," Rowan said in a recent statement about the program. "Black America and all mankind need the unchaining of the intellects of these young people."

In 1988, Rowan shot and wounded in the wrist an intruder who had trespassed on his property in Washington and used his swimming pool. Rowan said he had fired because the youth was trying to break into his house and refused to stop when ordered to do so. He also said the pistol he used was exempt from the District's strict gun-control laws because it belonged to his older son, a former FBI agent.

District officials disagreed and charged the columnist with violating those laws. A highly publicized trial ended with a hung jury.

A former roving correspondent in this country and abroad for the Minneapolis Tribune, Rowan traveled to the Deep South to cover the civil rights movement and to the Middle East to cover the war over the Suez Canal in 1956. He also worked in Europe and in India and elsewhere in Asia.

In 1961, he moved to Washington to serve in the administration of President John F. Kennedy, first as deputy assistant secretary of state for public affairs and then as ambassador to Finland. During the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, Rowan was a delegate to the United Nations. In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson named him director of the U.S. Information Agency, a position that gave him a seat on the National Security Council.

In 1965, Rowan left the government and established his newspaper column. He wrote the last one a few days before his death.

Rowan never abandoned his liberal roots and his belief in the efficacy of Johnson's Great Society and similar programs. His friends over the years included such icons of the liberal establishment as Eleanor Roosevelt and vice president Hubert H. Humphrey.

He also was a friend of Johnson, though they disagreed on U.S. policy in Vietnam. The two met when Rowan covered a trip to Asia that Johnson made during his days as Senate majority leader, and it was Johnson who recommended him to the Kennedy administration.

Although Rowan described King as his great hero, he did not hesitate to include in his biography an account of a conversation in which it was suggested that FBI director J. Edgar Hoover might have had evidence that King had a homosexual relationship with the Rev. Ralph Abernathy, his chief aide.

Rowan commented to a reporter that in writing the book he was making a contribution to history and that it was not his job to protect King. He added that the passage was about FBI abuses, not King's relations with Abernathy.

Rowan was the only journalist to win the coveted medallion of Sigma Delta Chi, the professional journalism society, three years in a row for both domestic and foreign correspondence.

Carl Thomas Rowan was born in Ravenscroft, Tenn., on Aug. 11, 1925. He grew up in McMinnville, Tenn. In his memoirs, he described an impoverished childhood in which he would sometimes steal food or sneak onto neighboring farms and "suck hot milk from the teats of a cow."

By doing odd jobs, he saved enough to enroll in Tennessee State College. He was a student there when the United States entered World War II and brought him an opportunity that he credited with changing his life.

This was a chance to enroll in a program that led to a commission in the Navy. He became one of the first 20 blacks to serve as officers in the Navy and he was assigned to a tanker in the Atlantic.

After the war, Rowan graduated from Oberlin College, which he attended on the GI Bill, and received a master's degree in journalism at the University of Minnesota. This led to a job on the Minneapolis Tribune.

Rowan was a past president of the Gridiron Club, an exclusive organization of Washington journalists, a former director of the Gannett Co. and a trustee of the Freedom Forum.

Survivors include his wife, Vivien Rowan of Washington three children, Barbara Rowan Jones of Clifton and Carl T. Rowan Jr. and Jeffrey Rowan, both of Washington and four grandchildren.


Carl Rowan: The Life Story of an Influential Newsman

And I’m Doug Johnson with the VOA Special English program, PEOPLE IN AMERICA. Today, we tell about the life of writer and reporter, Carl Rowan. He was one of the most honored reporters in the United States.

Carl Rowan was known for the powerful stories that he wrote for major newspapers. His columns were published in more than one hundred newspapers across the United States. He was the first black newspaper columnist to have his work appear in major newspapers.

Carl Rowan called himself a newspaperman. Yet, he was also a writer of best-selling books. He wrote about the lives of African American civil rights leader, Reverend Martin Luther King Junior and United States Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall.

Carl Rowan also was a radio broadcaster and a popular public speaker. For thirty years, he appeared on a weekly television show about American politics.

Carl Rowan won praise over the years for his reports about race relations in America. He provided a public voice for poor people and minorities in America. He influenced people in positions of power.

Mister Rowan opened many doors for African Americans. He was the first black deputy Secretary of State in the administration of President John F. Kennedy. And he was the first black director of the United States Information Agency which at the time supervised the Voice of America.

Carl Rowan was born in nineteen twenty-five in the southern city of Ravenscroft, Tennessee. He grew up during the Great Depression, one of the worst economic times in the United States. His family was very poor. His father stacked wood used for building, when he had work. His mother worked cleaning the homes of white people when she could. The Rowan family had no electricity, no running water, no telephone and no radio. Carl said he would sometimes steal food or drink warm milk from the cows on nearby farms.

The Rowans did not even have a clock. As a boy, Carl said he knew if it was time to go to school by the sound of a train. He said if the train was late, he was late.

Growing up, Carl had very little hope for any change. There were not many jobs for blacks in the South. The schools were not good. Racial tensions were high. Laws were enforced to keep blacks and whites separate.

It was a teacher who urged Carl to make something of himself. Bessie Taylor Gwynn taught him to believe he could be a poet or a writer. She urged him to write as much as possible. She would even get books for him because blacks were banned from public libraries.

Bessie Taylor Gwynn made sure that Carl finished high school. And he did. He graduated at the top of his class.

Carl entered Tennessee State College in nineteen forty-two. He almost had to leave college after the first few months because he did not have enough money. But on the way to catch a bus, his luck changed. He found the twenty dollars he needed to stay in college.

Carl Rowan did so well in college that he was chosen by the United States Navy to become one of the first fifteen black Navy officers. He said that experience changed his life.

Carl served on ships during World War Two. Afterward, he returned to college and graduated from Oberlin College in Ohio. He went on to receive his master’s degree in journalism from the University of Minnesota.

In nineteen forty-eight, Carl Rowan became a reporter for the Minneapolis Tribune newspaper in Minnesota. He was one of the first black reporters to write for a major daily newspaper.

As a young reporter, he covered racial tensions in the South during the civil rights movement. In nineteen fifty-six, he traveled to the Middle East to cover the war over the Suez Canal. He also reported from Europe, India and other parts of Asia. He won several major reporting awards.

Mister Rowan’s reports on race relations in the South interested President John F. Kennedy. In nineteen sixty-one, President Kennedy appointed Mister Rowan deputy assistant Secretary of State. He served as a delegate to the United Nations during the Cuban missile crisis in nineteen sixty-two. Mister Rowan later was appointed ambassador to Finland.

During his years in President Kennedy’s administration, Carl Rowan got to know Lyndon B. Johnson. Lyndon Johnson became president after President Kennedy was assassinated in nineteen sixty-three.

In nineteen sixty-four, President Johnson named Carl Rowan director of the United States Information Agency. The position made him the highest level African American in the United States government. Mister Rowan said being chosen to head the United States Information Agency and the Voice of America was one of the great honors of his life.

In nineteen sixty-five, Carl Rowan left the government and started writing for newspapers. He wrote a column that told his opinions about important social, economic and political issues. It appeared several times a week in a number of newspapers. Radio and television jobs followed.

Mister Rowan often wrote intensely about race relations. Yet, he wrote with more feeling about one subject than any other: that education and hard work will help young African Americans move forward.

Carl Rowan was angered by the ideas of some young blacks. He said they believed that to study hard and perform well in school was “acting white.” He deplored the idea that excellence is for whites only.

In nineteen eighty-seven, Mister Rowan created a program called “Project Excellence.” The program rewards black students who do well in school. Over the years, the program has provided millions of dollars to help African American students get money for college.

Throughout his life, Carl Rowan was a strong voice for racial justice in America. Yet, he also demanded excellence from other black Americans. He wrote about wrongdoing within the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP fights for the civil rights of African Americans. Mister Rowan’s columns led to the resignation of its chairman and helped speed the organization’s financial recovery.

Carl Rowan lived with his wife, Vivien Murphy, in a large house in Washington, D.C. They had three children and four grandchildren.

He had been a strong supporter of gun control laws. But in nineteen eighty-eight, he was charged for firing a gun that he did not legally own. He shot and wounded a teenager who was on his property illegally. Rowan was arrested and tried. During the trial, he argued that he had the right to use whatever means necessary to protect himself and his family.

The jury failed to reach a decision in the case.

In nineteen ninety-one, Carl Rowan wrote a book about his life called “Breaking Barriers.” Several years later, he wrote a book called “The Coming Race War in America.” The book describes the exploding anger between blacks and whites and the possibility of a future race war. Some people praised the book. Others thought it was harmful and irresponsible.

Carl Rowan was the first black president of an organization of top reporters in Washington called the Gridiron Club. The group does a show every year that makes fun of the American political process. Mister Rowan often performed by singing or leading a comedy act.

Carl Rowan used simple words when he spoke, yet he was very direct. He was criticized sometimes for that. Some people thought that his ideas were too liberal. Others thought he was too moderate. But most people thought his stories generally were very fair.

Mister Rowan talks about his life in his book, “Breaking Barriers”:

Carl Rowan died September Twenty-Third, Two-Thousand, in Washington, D.C. He was seventy-five years old. During the last years of his life, he suffered from diabetes and heart problems. But he never failed to write his newspaper column. He never let bad things slow him down.

This Special English program was written by Cynthia Kirk. I’m Shirley Griffith.

And I’m Doug Johnson. Listen again next week for another PEOPLE IN AMERICA program on the Voice of America.


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Remarks at the Swearing In of Carl T. Rowan as Director, United States Information Agency.

Mr. and Mrs. Rowan and members of the family, ladies and gentlemen:

This is a very delightful and happy moment for me, and I want to welcome all of you here for this event. It is always cheerful when a man of intelligence and courage, and capability, accepts a position of great responsibility in his own government. Carl Rowan's whole life has been spent, it would seem to me, in preparation for this extremely important assignment that he is taking over.

The USIA is not a propaganda apparatus. It is, rather, an instrument for the communication of truth throughout the world. Truth, unfortunately, is not an abundant commodity in the world. Too often people in other lands who want to believe the best in us are fed mistruths that seem to bring out the worst in us. So my only admonition to Carl Rowan is: Tell the truth.

Carl Rowan's response to that was, "Mr. President, that is all I know how to do."

So I think it is good for our country at this time and at this point in the history of the world that Carl Rowan takes over the sensitive post of Director of the USIA. He succeeds a very able man. He has a very difficult job to do. But it is a good job, telling the people of the world about the good things and the bad things in our own country.

My wish to you, Carl, is that you may serve your country in the future as you have in the past. And if you do that, I believe this Nation's posture will be the principal beneficiary. I approached you with some reluctance because I saw how happy you were in your ambassadorial assignment. I commented when I returned from the Scandinavian countries that you were very high on the list of the outstanding jobs that I observed being done. You will go to an organization that I know welcomes you and that will work with you.

All I can say is Godspeed.

Note: The swearing-in ceremony was held in the Cabinet Room at the White House. The text of Mr. Rowan's response was also released.

Mr. Rowan had been serving as Ambassador to Finland since March 9, 1963. As Director of the U.S. Information Agency he succeeded Edward R. Murrow, who served in that capacity from March 15, 1961, through January 20, 1964.

On January 21 the White House released an announcement of Mr. Murrow's resignation together with a statement by the President on appointing Ambassador Rowan as his successor.


Carl Thomas Rowan

Carl T. Rowan, journalist, government worker, media personality, and author, broke racial barriers throughout his career. He was born on August 10, 1925, to Thomas David and Johnnie Bradford Rowan and grew up in White County and then McMinnville. Challenged to pursue excellence by his high school teachers and Tennessee State University professors, Rowan took the national examination for admission to the U.S. Navy’s officer training program. He became one of the first fifteen African Americans to be admitted and, in 1944, one of the first African Americans to earn a commission in the navy.

Following his military career in 1946, he entered Oberlin College, where he majored in mathematics and received a B.A. in 1947. In l948 he received an M.A. in journalism from the University of Minnesota. While in school he wrote for several newspapers and upon graduation became a copy editor for the Minneapolis Tribune. Eventually he was promoted to reporter, one of the few African American reporters in the United States. In 1950 he proposed to his editors a series of articles on the conditions in the post-World War II South. Several publications grew from this series, including Go South to Sorrow (1957). This reporting underscored his determination to tell the truth regardless of the parties involved, to be more than the African American reporter who reported black events, and not to be a token African American reporter.

In 1954 he spent nearly a year in India, Pakistan, and Southeast Asia as a lecturer for the United Nations’ international education exchange program. He reported his observations to the Tribune and other papers in the United States and Asia and ultimately wrote The Pitiful and the Proud. Additionally, he wrote articles for the Minneapolis Tribune on Native Americans the Bandung Conference the Civil Rights movement the Suez Canal crisis and the Hungarian uprising against the Soviet Union. For his domestic reporting and foreign correspondence, he became the only journalist in American history to be awarded the Sigma Delta Chi medallion for three consecutive years.

In 1961 Rowan left the Tribune to serve as deputy assistant secretary for public affairs with the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. He moved to Helsinki in 1963, where he served as ambassador to Finland until 1964, when he became director of the United States Information Agency. He became not only the highest ranking African American in the federal government but also the first to attend National Security Council meetings. In 1965 he returned to journalism and was hired by the Field Newspaper Syndicate, becoming the first African American with a nationally syndicated column. He also had his own radio program, The Rowan Report, and made regular appearances on the television programs Agronsky & Co. and Meet the Press.

Further, Rowan wrote and produced two documentaries on Thurgood Marshall and wrote the books Just Between Us Blacks (1974), Race War in Rhodesia (1978), Breaking Barriers: A Memoir (1991), Dream Makers Dream Breakers: The World of Justice Thurgood Marshall (1993), and The Coming Race War: A Wake-up Call (1996).

In his syndicated column, lectures, and community involvement, Rowan continued to adhere to the principles that had informed his life’s work until the day he died, September 23, 2000, in Washington, D. C.


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Hist 05372. 3 S.H,
US Legal and Constitutional History Since 1870
(Prerequisites: 05306 or AMST 31021)

Hist 05373. 3 S. H.
Civil Rights/Black Power Movement
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course offers a profound reexamination of the Civil Rights-Black Power movements since the 1970s. Special attention is given to ongoing debates over the origins, development, regional boundaries, leadership, protest strategies , and effects of the movement. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05375. 3 S.H.
America Since 1945: The Modern Era
(Prerequisites: 05306 or AMST 31021)

This course is designed to provide students with an in-depth study of the social, economic, cultural, technological and political forces that shaped modern America since 1945. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05376. 3 S.H.
Afro-American History to 1865
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course surveys the major social, economic and cultural developments of the black community from Africa to the Civil War. It emphasizes a comparison of the transition from Africa to slave culture and studies the black man's contribution to the building of America.

Hist 05377. 3 S.H.
Afro-American History Since 1865
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course studies the development of the black community from emancipation to contemporary America, tracing such major themes as the pattern of migration and the various methods of black protest developed and employed in the 20th century.

Hist 05379. 3 S.H.
Ancient Egypt
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course will study the culture and history of ancient Egypt from its predynastic beginnings to its formation as the first nation state (c. 3000BCE) through its apex as an imperial power in the New Kingdom and decline (1050BCE). This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05394. 3 S.H.
Sub-Saharan Africa to 1800
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course surveys the regions and cultures of sub-Saharan Africa from the earliest origins to the beginning of European colonialism to provide an appreciation of the variety and significance of historical developments prior to the coming of the Europeans.

Hist 05397. 3 S.H.
Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1800
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

Students survey the development of sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial period and the new national period which followed, making an analysis of colonialism both as a European venture and as an episode in African historical development.

Hist 05404. 3 S.H.
Arab-Israeli Conflict
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course focuses on the history and development of the Arab-Israeli conflict from its genesis in the late 19th century to the present day. It covers a variety of topics including the origins of Zionism, Palestinian nationalism, the development of the conflict before 1948, the Arab-Israeli Wars, and peace plans. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05406. 3 S.H.
Jewish Holocaust 1933-1945
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course examines this unprecedented human destruction by dividing it into two phases: origins in Germany before 1939 and the war itself. Its sweep encompasses the killers, the victims of all faiths and status and the onlookers. Because this is a case study of genocide, students are urged to form their own conclusions as to its meaning for our own time. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05407. 3 S.H.
History of World War II
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course studies the causes and events of the Second World War with special attention to diplomatic and military history as well as to the personalities and cultural trends of the war. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05408. 3 S.H.
Chinese Cultural History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course covers essential features of Chinese culture from the 5th century BC to the present, including philosophy, religion, literature, geography, social and family structure, foreign cultural relations, and art. Students will also learn current scholarship on the subject and recent cultural trend. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05409. 3 S.H.
Latin American Revolutions and Reform
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course examines the often violent movements in Latin American history directed to achieve social, economic, and political reform. It emphasizes the Mexican, Cuban, and Chilean movements. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05410. 3 S.H.
European Intellectual History Since the 16th Century
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course covers the major themes in European intellectual history. It includes such topics as the birth and diffusion of the Enlightenment, Romanticism, 19th century liberalism, positivism, the Darwinian Revolution, Marxism, nationalistic thought, irrationalism in political and philosophical thought, existentialism and contemporary ideas. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05411. 3 S.H.
Topics in Latin American History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course analyzes selected topics in Latin American history since 1808. It reviews various topics and historiographical controversies. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05412. 3 S.H.
Intellectual History of the U.S.
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course deals with the main currents in American thought and society from colonial times to the present. It emphasizes discussion of high culture as essential to the understanding of the political and economic process of the American democratic experiment. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05413. 3 S.H.
Comparative Race Relations: South Africa, Brazil, and the U.S.
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course examines the development of multi-racial societies in Brazil, South Africa and the United States, and the impact of race on the political, social and economic cultures of the respective countries. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05414. 3 S.H.
Diplomatic History of the U.S. to 1900
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course surveys U.S. diplomatic history from the Revolutionary period through the emergence of the U.S. as a colonial power. The course stresses the impact of public opinion, cultural and political relations, as well as economic and strategic factors. It will analyze conflicting scholarly interpretations. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05415. 3 S.H.
Diplomatic History of the U.S. Since 1900
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course details the U.S. attempt to cope with the international complications and responsibilities brought about by 20th-century reality. The course stresses the impact of public opinion, cultural and political relations, as well as economic and strategic factors and analyzes conflicting scholarly interpretations. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05417. 3 S.H.
Women in Islam
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course aims to acquaint students with the role of women in Islam as a religion. it focuses on the wide range of women's experiences in different periods of history and in diverse Muslim societies, and introduces students to a variety of works and approaches to the field, including primary and secondary sources. The course is typically offered every other year.

Hist 05418. 3 S.H.
Women in Europe to 1700
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course traces the changing status and experience of women from classical civilizations through the early modern period of European history. Themes covered include women's role in religious life, early women's writings, women in the age of chivalry, early modern witch hunting, and the first stirrings of feminist thought. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05419. 3 S.H.
Women in Modern Europe
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course examines the history of women in modern Europe, from the 18th century to the 20th. Themes covered include the rise of domesticity, feminism in the age of revolutions, Victorian women, changing patterns of work and family, and the rise of women's activism. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05422. 3 S.H.
Women in American History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course focuses on the role of women in American history and culture, but some consideration is also given to Western traditions, myths and ideas which have affected American women. The range of topics is almost limitless. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05425. 3 S.H.
History of Feminisms
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course examines the history and origins of modern feminisms from European and American traditions to emergence in developing nations. Students will analyze and comprehend the intellectual, social, philosophical, political, and religious underpinnings of the development of feminisms from the Middle Ages to the present day in western and non-western contexts. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05429. 3 S.H.
Proseminar in History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course introduces students to in-depth historical analysis of a selected theme, including work with historical sources, critical reading of historians' accounts, intensive writing and class discussion.

Hist 05436. 3 S.H.
U.S. Home Front 1941-1945
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course explores the lives of ordinary people under the strains of war, examining social and economic factors which undergirded the military and political decisions of World War II. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05437. 3 S.H.
Twentieth Century African Nationalism
(Prerequisites: Hist 05.306)

In this course students will explore the history of 20th century Africa through an in-depth analysis of independence movements from their roots in the European conquest of the continent at the turn of the century to their legacies in Africa today. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05438. 3 S.H.
History of the Vietnam War
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course will explore the political, economic, military, diplomatic, social, and cultural dimensions and ramifications of the war from the perspective of all peoples involved. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05439. 3 S.H.
Ottoman History
(Prerequisites: Hist. 05.306)

This course will examine the history and development of the Ottoman Empire from its origins in the 13th century to its partition following World War I. Topics to be covered include its system of government and ruling elite, the cultural and daily life of Ottoman subjects, 19th and 20th century reform movements, and debates about the origins and "decline" of the empire. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05441. 3 S.H.
Imperialism and Colonialism
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course analyzes Nineteenth and Twentieth century imperialism in terms of its meaning, origins and development. It emphasizes institutional background, theory and practice and the "national liberation" movements, using readings in primary sources and secondary interpretations. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05443. 3 S.H.
Global Proseminar in History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course introduces students to in-depth historical analysis of a selected theme in global history including work with historical sources, critical reading of historians' accounts, intense writing, and class discussion.

Hist 05444. 3 S.H.
Islamist Movements
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course will explore the hisotry of radical Islamist movements, commonly termed "Islamic fundamentalists" , and their increasing strength since the 1970s. Students will explore the writings of influential Islamist writers as well as the goals, ideology, and tactics of a wide variety of Islamist opposition groups, regimes, and groups operating in Western countries. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05445. 3 S.H.
History of Cold War
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course will explore the history of the Cold War including the origins of the Cold War, Stalin and the Soviet system, the Berlin Crisis, war on the Korean peninsula, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam war the collapse of Communist Bloc. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05446. 3 S.H.
Race, Identity and History in East Asia
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course will explore race relations in modern societies from a comparative perspective. It will trace ideas and discourses on race in China prior to the 19th century and examine their influence in shaping the world order in East Asia. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05455. 3 S.H.
Gender, Sexuality and History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course approaches the study of human sexuality from an historical point of view i.e., how attitudes towards sexual behavior have varied over the centuries. The course uses the world of Western Civilization as an historical laboratory for the course. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05470. 3 S.H.
Issues in American History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course introduces a topical approach to U.S. history and involves an analysis of major events and ideas that have shaped U.S. society that uses historical methodology and interpretation. The course covers issues such as race, sex and youth in American Society and protest movements.

Hist 05471. 3 S.H.
History of the American West
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course will focus on the settlement and economic development of the American West from the arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century to the present. Among the topics considered will be: the role of the frontier in American history. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05472. 3 S.H.
Cultural History of the U.S.
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course explores trends in the fine arts and literature from 1607 to the present on three different levels: high style or urban culture, popular culture and rural or folk culture. It emphasizes specific American interpretations of parallel European developments. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05473. 3 S.H.
American Military History, 1775-Present
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

A survey of American military experience since the Revolution, this course analyzes military action and its effect on the home front against a background of politics, technology, diplomacy, and personality. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05474. 3 S.H.
U.S. Labor History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course examines the changing nature of the work and working conditions and the workers' efforts to find their place in the American economy from colonial times to the era of the Wagner and Taft-Hartley Acts, with special attention to workers' organizations. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05475. 3 S.H.
History of New Jersey
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

This course explores the historical background of the pre-European beginnings, colonial exploitation and settlement, the Revolution, growth of the state's leading industries, the development of transportation and problems of government. It stresses the history of New Jersey.

Hist 05492. 3 S.H.
Seminar
(Prerequisites: Senior)

This course concentrates on a research paper of substantial length based upon primary as well as secondary sources. The course also requires critical analysis and discussion of the papers by seminar participants. Required of History majors during their senior year.

Hist 05493. 3 S.H.
Independent Study
(Prerequisites: Department permission)

This course provides an opportunity to pursue individual specialized historical topics under the guidance of a staff member. This course may not be used as substitute for a course offered by the Department. This course may not be offered annually.

Hist 05495. 3-12 S.H.
Field Service in History
(Prerequisites: 05.306)

Designed to introduce students to actual historical work, this course places students with an historical society, museum, library or similar institution, where they serve a minimum of nine hours per week for one semester as a volunteer working in the arranging of archival material, exhibits, etc. This course may not be offered annually.


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