10 April 1942

10 April 1942


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10 April 1941

April 1942

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Far East

Japanese troops land on Cebu (Philippines) and Billiton (Indonesia)



April 1942 Alternate Indian Ocean

Forces A, B, and C are way up north in the Bay of Bengal as yet undetected because nobody is looking for them where they are at and waiting to pounce on Ozawa.

It will come through in the next couple of updates but Agar's force did better than intended in terms of throwing off Nagumo.

Johnboy

Forces A, B, and C are way up north in the Bay of Bengal as yet undetected because nobody is looking for them where they are at and waiting to pounce on Ozawa.

It will come through in the next couple of updates but Agar's force did better than intended in terms of throwing off Nagumo.

Could be intersting. I am tossing a coin as to whether to include an Indian Ocean jaunt in my own timeline.

Zheng He

Zheng He

Zheng He

HMS Tenedos lays smoke during the air attack on Force D:

Thanks for the updates. Force D served its purpose, though at a heavy cost. One cruiser, one monitor, and the AMC are overall much less important then the carriers, battleships, and escorts in the other task forces.

Darn shame that the AA from the ships could not have downed more planes, but without proximity rounds and radar controlled turrets, they at least got a few.

HMS Warspite

A clear identification is more easily said than done, though the typical three funneled silouette of HMS Dorsetshire might be easily recognised as being a British Heavy Cruiser, as such a silouette was quite unique. In the heat of the attack, mistakes and false identifications were (and still are) quite common.

HMS Warspite

Thanks for the updates. Force D served its purpose, though at a heavy cost. One cruiser, one monitor, and the AMC are overall much less important then the carriers, battleships, and escorts in the other task forces.

Darn shame that the AA from the ships could not have downed more planes, but without proximity rounds and radar controlled turrets, they at least got a few.

Zheng He

Heck, of all of the US planes that attacked Japanese ships over the entire course of the Battle of Midway, I believe Japanese AA got less than five.

The AA of US carrier groups started getting nasty in the later part of 42 - combination of fast battleships, ATLANTA class cruisers, and 40mm Bofors.

Zheng He

Unknown

Wonder how this affects Coral Sea and Midway.

Zheng He

Zheng He

Zheng He

Zheng He

HMS Warspite

Heck, of all of the US planes that attacked Japanese ships over the entire course of the Battle of Midway, I believe Japanese AA got less than five.

The AA of US carrier groups started getting nasty in the later part of 42 - combination of fast battleships, ATLANTA class cruisers, and 40mm Bofors.

AA fire in 1942 and later was not as effectiev as often claimed,. as even at Santa Cruz, the majority of the IJN aircraft destroyed fell to CAP fighters, rather than AA fire. USS South Dakota is often claimed to hav shot down 27 divebombers in this particular action, but this is a serious overestimation of the total numbers. (In the whole battle the IJN lost 99 aircraft, including the ones destroyed on Shokaku, when heavily damaged by bombs exploding in her hangars, leaving only a portion to be destroyed in the air by mainly the CAP fighters of USS Enterprise and partly USS Hornet. AA fire aquitted itself only for a dozen in all, shared by several ships.)


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BASAHIN | LIBO-LIBONG SUNDALONG PILIPINO-AMERIKANO, NAGPASIMULANG MAGLAKAD MULA MARIVELES PATUNGONG SAN FERNANDO.

Matapos ang pagsuko sa Bataan na nangyari noong Abril 9, ay inutos ng mga Hapon na tumungo ang lahat ng mga sundalo ng pwersang USAFFE sa Bataan sa Mariveles Airbase o sa tabi ng daan palabas ng Bataan.

Nais ni Gen. Homma na alisin lahat ng mga sumukong sundalo sa Bataan para masimulan na nila ang tuloy-tuloy na pagsalakay sa Corregidor, kung nasaan ang si Gen. Wainwright at ang pamunuan ng USAFFE.

Humigit kumulang na 77,000 na sundalong USAFFE ang sumuko sa Hapon (66,000 Pilipino, 11,000 Amerikano). Hindi bulto ang pagsuko ng mga sundalo sa Bataan. Unti-unting bumaba ng bundok at gubat ang pulu-pulutong na mga sundalo upang sumuko sa Hapon.

Dahil sa dami ng sundalo kailangang dalhin sa concentration camp, ay pinili ni Homma na palakarin ang mga Pilipino-Amerikanong sundalo mula Mariveles hanggang San Fernando, Pampanga. na halos 6-7 araw na lakarin sa ilalim ng mainit na araw.

ilang libong mga sundalong Pilipino at Amerikano ang namatay sa pangyayaring ito na tinaguriang "Bataan Death March."

Magmula sa araw na ito, ay sunod-sunod na ang mga karahasang ginawa ng mga Hapon sa mga Prisoners of war. Mga karahasang laban sa karapatang pantao at sa kombensyon ng Geneva patungkol sa pagtrato sa mga sumukong sundalo sa panahon ng digmaan.

Страница History News обновила фото обложки.

In a cabin facing manila bay in Bataan, Gen. Wainwright met Gen. Homma to discuss the surrender of Corregidor. It was a windy day and around 5pm when the meeting concluded.

History News

Matapos ang halos isang buwan na walang tigil na pambobomba ng mga Hapon sa Isla ng Corregidor ay nagpasya na si Gen. Jonathan Wainwright na sumuko na sa Hapon upang maiwasan na marami pang masasawi dahil sa matinding aerial at coastal bombardment na ginawa ng mga kalaban.

Sa ganap na 10:30 ng umaga, gamit ang istasyong "Voice of Freedom" ay nagpadala ng mensahe si General Beebe kay Gen. Homma na pormal nang sumusuko ang Isla ng Corregidor.

Sa ganap na alas-dose ng tanghali ay itinaas na ang puting watawat sa Corregidor, ngunit hindi ito pinansin ng mga Hapon at tuloy pa rin ang pambobomba ng mga kalaban. Tuloy pa rin ang pagsalakay ng mga Hapon sa isla, matapos na maglanding ang ilang libong mga sundalo sa Corregidor.

Dahil dito napilitan nang magpadala ng tao si Gen. Wainwright upang maihatid sa mga Hapon ang kanilang pagsuko. Isang marine officer, c Capt. Golland Clark Jr. ang naatasan na magdala ng mesahe sa linya ng mga Hapon ng pagsuko ng Corregidor.

Sa ganap na ala-una ng tangahil ay nagsimulang naglakad si Capt. Clark dala ang isang puting bandera patungo sa linya ng mga Hapon. Nang makita ito ng mga kalaban ay pinadaan ng mga Hapon si Capt. Clark upang kausapin patungkol sa pagsuko.

Dali-daling pinabalik si Clark ng mga Hapon upang sabihan si Gen. Wainwright na makipagkita na siya sa kay Gen. Homma na kasalukuyang nasa Bataan.

Sa ganap na alas-dos y medya ng hapon kasama ang ilang mga sundalong Hapon ay tumungo na si Gen. Wainwright sa Bataan upang humarap kay Gen. Homma.

Nais pa sana na Gen. Wainwright na isuko lamang niya ang Corregidor at hindi ang buong pwersa ng USAFFE, ngunit kasama ni Gen. Homma si Col. Nakayama, ang nakausap ni Gen. King nang isuko nya ang Bataan. Hindi pumayag si Col. Nakayama na maulit muli ang pang-iisa ng mga Amerikano, kaya't nang marinig niya ito kay Gen. Wainwright ay galit na nagpaulan ng mga maanghang na salita si Col. Nakayama sa kanyang wika.

Tumagal ng ilang minuto ang usapin patungkol sa pagsuko ng buong pwersa ng USAFFE sa Visayas at Mindanao. Umabot sa punto na itinanggi ni Wainwright na siya ang ginawang pinuno ng USAFFE ni MacArthur. Dahil sa unsyami, ay nagbadyang umalis na si Gen. Homma sa pag-uusap.

Nguni't dahil sa sitwasyon at sa tiyak na kamatayan ng mga sundalo sa Corregidor kung hindi matuloy ang pagsuko ay napilitang pumayag si Gen. Wainwright. Nguni't binalikan siya ni Homma na dahil itinanggi ni Gen. Wainwright ang kanyang pagkapinuno sa USAFFE ay hindi nya pwede tangapin ang pagsuko nito, dahil ang nais nya lamang kausap ay ang ka-ranggo nya.

Naipit sa sitwasyon si Wainwright. Nguni't ang sabi ni Homma ay kung susuko siya ay sumuko sya sa commander ng unit ng Hapon na kasalukuyang nasa Cooregidor. Napilitang gawin ito ni Wainwright at sa Barangay San Jose sa Corregidor ay isinuko ni Wainwright ang pwersa ng USAFFE.

Sa ganap na alas-sais ng gabi ng May 6, 1942, ay pormal na sumuko ang buong pwersa ng USAFFE.
# corregidor

Photos:
1. Surrender of Wainwright
2. Japanese victory pose

Source:
1. The fall of the Philippines - Louis Morton
2. The complete battle of Bataan - Donald Young


10 Facts About the Soviet War Machine and the Eastern Front

The Axis Power’s invasion of the Soviet Union began the largest land war in history, drawing much of Germany’s power away from the war in Western Europe. Throughout the course of the war, the Soviets had the greatest casualties in both military and overall losses, contributing the most of any side to the Allied victory against the Nazis.

Here are 10 facts about the Soviet contribution to the Second World War and the theatre of the Eastern Front.


The 1942 Corregidor Muster

It was April 1942, and World War II had the nation in a chokehold. In the fight against Japan, the small island of Corregidor in Manila Bay was the last of America&rsquos strongholds in the area. As the small island continued to be pummeled by artillery shells from Japanese planes, the only safe spot for American soldiers was the bombproof Malinta Tunnel. The 830-foot by 35-foot passageway&mdashused as headquarters, a supply depot and makeshift hospital&mdashbecame the spot of Aggie legend.

It was April 21,&mdashSan Jacinto Day, Brig. Gen. George F. Moore, Class of 1908, realized. According to the book
Softly Call the Muster by John A. Adams, Jr. &rsquo73, Moore asked another Aggie, Maj. Tom Dooley &rsquo35, if they
could get a list of the Aggies fighting at Corregidor. There were 24 of them.

&ldquoSo, we had a roll call, and a muster is a roll call,&rdquo Dooley was quoted as saying. He sent word to one of the
news correspondents reporting from the island, and the reporter wired the story back to the states.

Sometimes in tradition, truth and legend land so close together, a historian can get whiplash. And somewhere along the newswire, the tale of Aggie Muster at Corregidor grew wings, said retired University Archivist David Chapman &rsquo67. The Houston Post ran the headline, &ldquoAggies Fete San Jacinto&mdash35 Texans Bear Down on Famed Fight Song.&rdquo The story said the group gathered in the tunnel and &ldquosang Texas songs.&rdquo

Impossible, said Chapman. The story is debunked by other accounts, too. It was war, Chapman said. Artillery
shells rained from the sky there was no way the Aggies would have physically gathered together, he said.

But as a historian, Chapman calls no foul. The story, he explained, gave hope to a nation and helped cement
the genuine celebration Muster triggers now. It gave Muster an international standing. This year there will be
more than 325 Musters held around the world, but it was that 1942 Muster that provided the inspiration for what Muster has become.

One of the most famous photos in all of Aggie lore is the one of soldiers gathered at the mouth of Malinta Tunnel, an Aggie flag&mdashhastily made from a bedsheet&mdashflying proudly above their heads. That flag and a copy of the photo are displayed seasonally on the mezzanine of the Clayton W. Williams, Jr. Alumni Center. Many believe the photo shows the 1942 Corregidor Muster, but it actually depicts a second Corregidor Muster, in 1946, when Aggies returned to honor the men of &rsquo42.

Texas A&M has already begun planning for a special event in 2017 to recognize the 75th anniversary of the
first Corregidor Muster. Events will include the unveiling of a monument at the mouth of Malinta Tunnel, recognizing and remembering the 24 brave Aggies who Mustered there in 1942.


10 April 1942 - History

Section 1 GUIDED READING Dictators Threaten World Peace
A. As you read this section, take notes about the rise of dictators in Europe and Asia.

1. Joseph Stalin 2. Benito Mussolini 3. Adolf Hitler
Nation: 1Soviet Union 2Italy 3Germany
Political movement and†beliefs 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Five year plan. Wanted to create a model Communist state in the Soviet Union. Fascism which was a new political movement that consisted of a strong centralized government headed by a powerful dictator. Nazism which was based on extreme nationalism. Wanted to form a “Master race” in Germany- the Aryans. National expansion.
Aggressive actions taken in the 1920s and†1930s Established a totalitarian government. Established Fascist party. Nazi party won in election. Established the Third Reich.

4. Japanese Militarists 5. Francisco Franco
Nation Japan Spain
Political movement and†beliefs Need for more “living space” for a growing population. Fascist general.
Aggressive actions taken in the 1920s and†1930s Invasion of Manchuria. Control of Japan’s government. Fought in Spanish war.
B. On the back of this paper, define totalitarian. Then explain the significance of the Neutrality Acts.
1. Totalitarian is the government controlling every aspect of everyday life in their country.
2. Neutrality Acts were used to keep the US out of future wars. One outlawed are sales or loans to nations at was and another was passed in response to fighting that broke out in Spain.

Section 2 GUIDED READING War in Europe

A. As you read this section, take notes to answer questions about how Germany started World War II. Note the development of events in the time line.

Munich Pact is signed by Germany, France, and Britain.

1. Why did Neville Chamberlain sign the Munich Pact?
To turn the Sudetenland over to Germany without a shot being fired.
2. Why did Winston Churchill oppose the pact?
In his view, by signing the pact, Daladier and Chamberlain had adopted a shameful policy of appeasement.
3. What did Germany and the USSR agree to in their accords?
Divide Poland between them.
4. What happened to Poland as a result of the invasion, and how did Britain and France respond to†it?
Poland ceased to exist and WWII had begun. French and British troops created the Maginot Line along France’s eastern border.
5. What were the surrender terms offered to France?
Germans would occupy the northern part of France and a Nazi-controlled puppet govt would be set up at Vichy in southern France.
6. What type of battle was the Battle of Britain, and why was England’s victory so important?
The Battle of Britain was an air war. The Luftwaffe, the German air force, began bombing runs over Britain.

B. On the back of this paper, identify who Charles de Gaulle was. Then define appeasement, nonaggression pact, and blitzkrieg.
1. French general who fled to England where he set up a government-in-exile.
2. Giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.
3. The Soviet Union and Germany agreed not to fight each other.
4. Germany's newest military strategy, lighting war.

Section 3 GUIDED READING The Holocaust

A. As you read, take notes to answer questions related to the time line.

1925: In Mein Kampf, Hitler presents his racist views on “Aryans” and Jews.

1933: Hitler comes to power. Soon after, he orders non-Aryans to be removed from government jobs and begins to build concentration camps. Thousands of Jews begin leaving Germany.
1. Why didn’t France and Britain accept as many German Jews as they might have?
France did not want anymore and Britain worried about fueling anti-Semitism if the number of jewish refugees were to increase.

1935: Nuremberg laws are passed.
2. What did the Nuremberg laws do? Stripped jews of their civil rights and property if they tried to leave Germany.

1938: Kristallnacht occurs.
3. What happened during Kristallnacht? Gangs of Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes businesses and synagogues across Germany.

1939: As war breaks out in Europe, U.S. Coast Guard prevents refugees on the St.Louis from landing in Miami.
4. Why didn’t the United States accept as many German Jews as it might have The US was trying to stay out of the war with Germany.

1941: Nazis build six death camps in Poland.
5. What groups did the Nazis single out for extermination? The Nazis singled out any group that they viewed as inferior or unworthy.

1945 to 1949: After war in Europe ends in 1945, many Nazi leaders are brought to justice for their crimes against humanity.
6. How did the Nazis go about exterminating the approximately 11 million people who died in the Holocaust? Overwork, starvation, beatings, bullets, gas chambers, crematoriums, hangings, gasing, injected with poison.

Section 4 GUIDED READING America Moves Toward War

As you read, take notes about how the United States entered World War II.

1939: Congress passes Neutrality Act.
1. What did the Neutrality Act†allow? Permit nations to buy American arms as long as they paid cash and carried the goods home in their own ships.

1940: Axis powers form alliance.
2. Who were the Axis powers? What did their alliance mean for the United States?
Japan, Germany, and Italy. Their alliance meant that the US was aimed at being kept out of the war.

1941: Congress passes Lend-Lease Act. Germany invades USSR.
3. What did the Lend-Lease Act†do? The president would lend or lease arms and other supplies to “any country whose defense was vital to the United States.
4. Japan takes over French military bases in Indochina.
Congress extends the draft.
5. What did the United States do to protest Japan’s action? The US passed the draft-extension bill. Churchill and Roosevelt draft the Atlantic Charter.

6. What pledges were contained in the Atlantic Charter? Great Britain and the US were to seek no territorial expansion, persiuse no territorial changes without the consent of the inhabitants, respect the right of the people to choose their own form of government, promote free trade among nations, encourage international cooperation to improve people lives, build a secure peace based on freedom from want and fear, work for disarmament of aggressors, and establish a “permanent system of general security.” “A Declaration by the United Nations” is signed by the Allies. Hideki Tojo becomes Japan’s prime minister. U.S. Senate allows arming of merchant ships.

7. Who were the Allies? The nations that joined together to fight the Axis powers. Signed by 26 nations including the Soviet Union and China. Japan launches a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.

8. What did the attack do to the U.S. Pacific fleet? Destroyed the US Pacific fleet and brought the US into the war. As U.S. declares war on Japan, Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.

9. Why did Germany and Italy declare war on the United States? Because US declared war on Japan and they were Japan’s allies.

Section 1 GUIDED READING Mobilization on the Home Front

A. As you read about how the United States mobilized for war, note how each of the following contributed to that effort.

1. Selective Service System:
Expanded the draft and eventually provided another 10 million soldiers to meet the armed forces needs.
2. Women:
Women served in the war and other auxiliary branches during the war.
3. Minorities:
Millions joined the armed forces. They enlisted and fought in the war.
4. Manufacturers:
Produced tanks, planes, boats, and command cars. Shipyards and defense plants expanded.
5. A. Philip Randolph:
Organized a march on Washington, called on blacks everywhere to come to the capital and to march under the banner “We loyal colored Americans demand the right to work and fight for our country.”
6. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD):
Improvements in both radar and sonar, a new technology for locating submarines underwater. Use of pesticides to fight insects. Pushed the development of miracle drugs such as penicillin. Development of the atomic bomb.
7. Entertainment industry:
Churned out war oriented propaganda films. Boom in the publishing and radio industries. Magazines were covered with war pictures and words.
8. Office of Price Administration (OPA):
Fought inflation by freezing prices on most goods. Raised income tax rates and extended the tax to millions of people who had never paid it before.
9. War Production Board (WPB):
Decided which companies would convert from peacetime to wartime production and allocated raw materials to key industries. Organized nationwide drives to collect scrap waste for recycling into war goods.
10. Rationing:
Established fixed allotments of goods deemed essential for the military.

B. On the back of this paper, briefly describe George Marshall’s position on how women could contribute to the war effort. Then, explain who the Nisei were and what happened to them.
1. Pushed for the formation of a Women’s Auxilary Army corps (WAAC0.
2. The Nisei were Japanese Americans who had been born in this country and were thus American citizens, drafted to the armed forces.

Section 2 GUIDED READING The War for Europe and North Africa
A. As you read about the Allied war effort, take notes to explain what made each event a critical moment or turning point in the war.

February 1943: End of Battle of Stalingrad.
1.Soviets victory on the Volga.
May 1943: End of Operation Torch
2. Africa Korps surrendered in May 1943.

Mid-1943: Victory in Battle of the Atlantic.
3 Mussolini was arrested and Italians celebrated.

June 1944: D-Day.
4. Day of invasion of the allies.

July 1944: Liberation of Majdanek.
5. Realized that the camps were “gigantic murder plants’ and liberated them.

August 1944:Liberation of France

October 1944: Capture of Aachen
7. Hitler did a surprise counterattack on the US.

January 1945: End of Battle of the Bulge.
8. Germans were pushed back and they lost 120,000 troops, 600 assault tanks and assault guns, and 1600 planes.

Spring 1945: End of Italian campaign

May 1945: V-E Day
10. Victory in Europe day. First part of war was over.

Name _____________________________________________________ Date _______________________

GUIDED READING The War in the Pacific

A. As you read about the defeat of Japan and the end of the war, write notes to describe important wartime and war-related events. (Leave the shaded box blank.)

The War in the Pacific
Date and Place Leaders Involved What happened?
1. April 1942, Bataan: Colonel James Doolittle
Took off from the aircraft carrier Hornet. Swept over the sea over Tokyo and four other Japanese cities.
2. June 1942, Midway: Admiral Chester Nimitz
Largest assemblage of naval power. Went from Midway to Hawaii to finish the destruction of American naval power started at Pearl Harbor. Japanese lost four irreplaceable aircraft carriers, a cruiser and 322 planes.
3. August 1942, Guadalcanal: Ralph Martin
Marked Japans first defeat on land.
4. October 1944, Leyte Gulf: General MacArthur
Japanese threw their entire fleet into the battle. New tactic kamikaze attack in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships.
5. March 1945, Iwo Jima: William Manchester
Took the desolate island.
6. June 1945, Okinawa: Allies and Japan
Last obstacle standing between them.Japanese unleashed kamikaze attacks on the allies during the campaign.

The Science of War
Date and Place Leaders Involved What happened?
8. July 1945, Los Alamos: J Robert Oppenheimer
Worker in secret lab in New Mexico to build the actual atomic bomb,
9. August 1945, Hiroshima, Nagasaki: America and Japan
Bombing by Americans, atomic bomb dropped.

Planning and Rebuilding for Peace
Date and Place Leaders Involved What happened?
10. February 1945, Yalta:Roosevelt Churchill and Stalin
Agreed to move ahead in creating a new international peacekeeping body, the United Nations.
11. April 1945, San Francisco: Representatives of 50 nations
Established the United Nations.
12. 1945–1949, Nuremberg: Leaders from US Great Britain France and Soviet Union
Twenty two Nazi leaders were tried during the trials,

B. On the back of this paper, explain or define kamikaze and Manhattan Project. 24 Unit 5, Chapter 17
1. Kamikaze was a suicide plane.
2. The creation of the atomic bomb.

_____________________________________________________ Date _______________________

GUIDED READING The Impact of the War

As you read this section, write notes to answer questions about the impact of the war on various segments of American society.

How did the war and its immediate aftermath affect the following?
1. Labor: Unemployment fell to a low of 1.2 percent. Paychecks rose 70 percent during the war.Farmers also prospered. Women enjoyed employment gains also.
2. Agriculture: Raised because there was good weather for growing crops.
3. Population centers: Mass migration. Millions of newcomers went California.Major cities jumped by a third or more.
4. Family life: Mothers struggled to rear their children alone. Helped create new families.
5. Returning: Provided education and training for veterans, paid for by the federal government.

How did these groups react to discrimination and racism during and after the war?
6. African Americans Segregation remained the rule in the military.
7. Mexican Americans Experienced both progress and prejudice during the war years.
8. Japanese Americans Many escaped the camps by volunteering for military service.

On the back of this paper, briefly explain why James Farmer is an important historical figure.
Civil rights leader who founded an interracial organization called the Congress of Racial Equality to confront urban segregation in the North.


Top 10 Worst Hailstorms In Texas History (Adjusted For Inflation)

#10 June 6, 2018, Carrolton, Texas – $625 million (2019 – $639 million)

In the early morning hours of June 6th, Carrolton, Texas received the worst of a terrible hailstorm that rocked parts of the Dallas – For Worth area with 3-inch diameter hailstones.

#9 March 29, 2012, McAllen, Texas – $600 million (2019 – $670 million)

The storm that launched the modern practice of the Texas hailstorm damage lawyers at Moore Law Firm, McAllen was slammed with the largest hailstorm ever recorded in the Rio Grande Valley. Hailstones the size of baseball continuously pounded on roofs with the aid of 75 MPH winds.

#8 – March 23, 2016, Plano, Texas – $700 million (2019 – $748 million)

Thunderstorms developed late Wednesday afternoon and Wednesday evening along a dryline as it surged east to the Interstate 35 corridor. Several of these storms became severe, producing damaging winds, hail and one tornado. The tornadic storm in northern Tarrant County proceeded to drop large hail as it moved east into northern Dallas and southern Collin County, creating around 700 million dollars in overall hail damage.

#7 – April 3, 2012, Dallas – Ft. Worth, Texas – $775 million (2019 – $866 million)

A historic North Texas tornado outbreak occurred on April 3rd, with 22 tornadoes developing throughout the region. In addition to the tornadoes, large hail damaged many parts of the DFW Metroplex. Approximately 110 airplanes at DFW International Airport were damaged by the hail and taken out of service until repaired. No fatalities occurred and 29 people were injured.

#6 – April 3, 2014, Denton, Texas – $850 million (2019 – $921 million)

Strong to severe thunderstorms developed ahead of a dryline moving across the region. These storms were hail producers and mainly affected areas primarily along and north of US 380 from Decatur to Sulphur Springs. The worst damage was done in Denton where hail up to the size of softballs caused close to (at the time) $850 million in damage. Three tornadoes also occurred with this system.

#5 – June 13, 2012, Dallas – Fort Worth, Texas – $890 million (2019 – $995 million)

Four supercells produced a record-setting hail event and one tornado across parts of North Texas. Two of the four supercells tracked through Dallas County causing over (at the time) $890 million in hail damage. The hail in Dallas County ranged in sizes up to 3 in diameter. In many areas, the hail lasted for at least 30 minutes. Tens of thousands of cars were damaged by the hail, windows were shattered, roofs were damaged, and trees were shredded of their leaves.

#4 – April 5, 2003, North Texas – $885 million (2019 – $1.23 billion)

Three storm supercells brought with them tremendous amounts of hail that pelted all throughout North Texas including the Dallas – Fort Worth area, causing upwards of (at the time) $885 million in damages. At least 3 people were injured by the large hail that fell during this event, and numerous roofs, gutters, windows, airplanes, automobiles, and trees were damaged. The damage cost from these storms will likely continue to rise over the coming weeks and months.

#3 April 28, 1992, Fort Worth – Waco, Texas – $750 million (2019 – $1.37 billion)

The evening of April 28, 1992, brought with it one of the most devastating hailstorms of all time, pummeling two areas approximately 100 miles apart. For nearly five hours, residents between Waco to Fort Worth braced as hailstones the size of grapefruits (4.5 in. diameter) smashed windows and decimated roofs.

At the time, no other Texas hail storm in recorded history had ever come close to the amount of damage that was sustained that Spring evening.

#2 – April 12, 2016, San Antonio, Texas – $1.4 billion (2019 – $1.5 billion)

An upper-level low-pressure system over the Desert Southwest combined with a stationary front to produce thunderstorms across South Central Texas. Some of these storms produced large to giant hail. The largest hail storm moved across northern Bexar County, crossing the northern half of San Antonio. A thunderstorm produced 4.5-inch hail near Tezel Rd. and Bandera Rd. in northwestern San Antonio. This tied for the largest hailstone ever reported in Bexar County. Damage costs in San Antonio are estimated at $1.4 billion making this the costliest hailstorm in the history of Texas, before inflation. Estimates provided by the Insurance Council of Texas and include damage to 136,000 vehicles and 125,000 homes.

#1 – May 5, 1995, North Texas – $1.1 billion (2019 – $1.85 billion)

Also known as the 1995 Mayfest Storm just after 5:30 PM CDT, the thunderstorm developed rapidly on the Palo Pinto/Parker County line ahead of an intense squall line over the western part of north Texas. This storm quickly became severe, producing hail up to golf ball-size 18 inches deep across southern parts of Parker County, and flash flooding resulting in two deaths. The storm continued to intensify as it moved into Tarrant County around 7:00 PM CDT, producing baseball-size hail in Benbrook. As the storm moved east-northeast across Fort Worth, softball-size hail was reported at many locations. At Mayfest, a large outdoor festival located at Trinity Park in Fort Worth, an estimated 10,000 people were caught in the open with little available shelter. Hail up to softball-size injured many people. The storm continued moving east-northeast across Tarrant County producing large hail, wind damage, and flash flooding producing rainfall, with one flash flood death. At 7:48 PM CDT, as the storm began moving into Dallas County, the squall line that was to the west merged with the severe thunderstorm. This merger resulted in record rainfall and massive flash flooding the remainder of the night across Dallas County, with 17 people drowned and many stranded by high water. Total estimated damage across Parker, Tarrant, and Dallas counties, from this storm, is estimated at over $1.85 billion adjusting for inflation, making it the costliest hail storm event in the history of Texas.


What was boot camp/military training like during WWII?

My grandfather served in that war in Japan, and I'm curious as to what it was like and how it may have been different from today.

Due to the commonality of the situation, I focus on the journey of the drafted infantry replacement.

The Draftee's Journey

Robert S. Rush’s book GI: The US Infantryman in World War II gives a very nice overview of the US infantryman’s experience in WWII, by using four vignettes, each of a fictional soldier in

Pacific Ocean Area (a “Michael O’Brien”, of the 165th Inf. Reg't, 27th Inf. Div. Michael voluntarily enlisted pre-war into the New York National Guard)

North Africa/Mediterranean (a “John Smith”, of the 1st Bn., 133rd Inf. Reg't, 34th Inf. Div. John voluntarily enlists and is assigned to the 76th Infantry Division, but is later transferred as a replacement to the 34th Infantry Division)

Europe (a “Joseph Stein”, of the 2nd Bn., 22nd Inf. Reg't., 4th Inf. Div. Joseph is drafted, and later receives a field commission as an officer)

Southwest Pacific (a “Gordon Cockrell”, of the 2nd Bn., 382nd Inf. Reg't, 96th Inf. Div. Gordon is drafted, and initially assigned to the 89th Infantry Division, but is eligible for and attends Officer Candidate School and is later assigned to the 96th Infantry Division)

Selective Training and Service Act of 1940:

The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, passed on September 16, provided for compulsory military service of selected men aged 21-35 (21st birthday to the last day of their 35th year old) for one year. They could only be deployed in the Western hemisphere or on U.S. lands. Not more than 900,000 men were to be in training at any one time. To organize the registration and other registrations after that, the Department of Selective Service (DSS) set up 6,443 draft boards nationwide. Each county had to have at least one board. Large cities had many boards, one for every 30,000 people. Eight registrations would eventually be held

Draft Registrations:

Registration/EventDateBirth datesNote
110/16/4010/17/04-10/16/19Men 21-35 years old
27/1/4110/17/18-7/1/20Men who had turned 21 since the last registration, and men who were of age but had failed to register in the first registration
32/16/422/17/97-10/16/04 and 7/2/20-12/31/21Men 20-21 and 37-44 years old
44/17/424/28/77-2/16/97Men 45-64 years old (not liable for military service)
56/30/421/1/22-6/30/24Applicable 18 year old men
6 (I)12/11-12/17/427/1-8/31/24" "
6 (I)12/18-12/24/429/1-10/31/24" "
6 (I)12/26-12/31/4211/1-12/31/24" "
6 (II)1/1/42-3/31/471/1/25-3/31/29Men were to register as they turned 18 years old
Extra11/16-12/31/431/1/99-12/31/25Men 18-44 years old living abroad. Beginning 1/1/44, men were to register as they turned 18 years old
Special10/23-10/31/4411/12/99-10/31/26Men 18-44 years old living in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Beginning 11/1/44, men were to register as they turned 18 years old

The First Three Registrations:

The DSS Form 1 (registrar's report) and DSS Form 2 (registration certificate) were issued to all men in each draft board's district that were of age. The certificates were then sent to the state's Director of Selective Service, who gave the cards random serial numbers in sequence that counted the total number of registrants in each district.

The first lottery was in October 1940. In Washington D.C., the numbers 1 to 9,000 (the highest number assigned by a board was 8,090, and late registrations were accounted for) were placed into opaque capsules and then into a glass bowl. Secretary of War Henry Stimson stirred the bowl using a rod made from a beam of Philadelphia's Independence Hall. He then drew a number from the bowl and opened it. President Roosevelt announced the number 158. Across the country, 6,175 men were assigned that number. More numbers were drawn in a random order until the lottery was concluded.

The selected numbers then became a National Master List, which was given to local boards. In the boards which had issued under the highest serial number recorded, the numbers that did not exist were crossed out. The remaining serial numbers then, in the order drawn, were given order numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, and so on until each had a number this was the order in which men were to be called for military service.

Each board then gave two questionnaires (DSS Forms 40 and 311) and a basic physical and mental examination that assisted them in classifying the men in their district. Each of the registrants received a classification on the DSS Form 57. Classifications were routinely reviewed. Fully half of the men examined in October 1940 were deemed unsuitable, 20 percent of these because they were illiterate by Army standards. In order to be preliminarily classified I-A by their local board in October 1940, a man needed to

Have at least 12 teeth (6 incisors and 6 chewing teeth)

Not have venereal disease, hernia, or flat feet

Have vision correctable with glasses

Be functionally literate and able to write

Not have been convicted of a crime

A second lottery was held following the second registration on July 17, 1941, as was a third lottery on March 17, 1942.

Starting on August 16, 1941, men who were 28 and older were deferred from training and service (this provision was abolished after the war began). The term of service of the October draftees was extended 6 more months on August 18, 1941. With U.S. entry into WWII, the term of service of draftees and those who volunteered was extended again, for the duration of the war plus 6 months. On December 20, 1941, the ages of men liable for induction were increased to 20-44. Men aged 18-64 who were not already registered were compelled to do so when the time presented itself. 20-21 and 37-44 year old men were registered in February 1942.

The Fourth Registration:

45-64 year old men were registered in April 1942. They were not liable for military service at any time, and this registration was to collect a census of non-military age workers in the United States, to determine how they could best be utilized in industry.

The Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Registrations:

18 and 19 year olds were registered in June 1942 and continuously thereafter. On November 13, 1942, the age limit for induction was dropped to 18. On December 5, 1942, through Executive Order 9279, men from 18-37 years old were barred from voluntarily enlisting in order to preserve the nation's manpower. Men of these ages could now only join the military by being drafted. Simultaneously, the military decreed that men above the age of 38 were unacceptable. The order became effective on January 1, 1943 and expired on August 29, 1945.

The lottery system was discontinued and men were assigned order numbers based on birth date. The highest order number given in the third registration was advanced by one to give the first order number of the fifth registration, and the last number of the fifth registration was advanced by one for the first number of the sixth registration. After the military filed a needs assessment was filed with the Department of Selective Service, a quota was given to each state, and split up among the local boards. The boards selected from the group of most eligible candidates first, taking the oldest men first out of that group, and moving down the list from there.

Beginning in 1943, many minor felons (100,000 eventually were drafted) that were previously classified IV-F due to being morally unfit were pardoned by draft boards in cooperation with police, making them liable for induction. In October 1943, married fathers whose children were born before December 7, 1941 began to be drafted despite opposition from several Congressmen. By April 1944, the Army relaxed the induction criteria. Men could now be toothless, be missing one or both external ears, or be missing a thumb or three fingers (but not both) on one hand only. Cases of venereal diseases were also acceptable, to be treated with penicillin after induction.


10 April 1942 - History

Posted on 04/10/2009 6:08:35 AM PDT by mainepatsfan

April 10, 1942 Bataan Death March begins

The day after the surrender of the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese, the 75,000 Filipino and American troops captured on the Bataan Peninsula begin a forced march to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. During this infamous trek, known as the "Bataan Death March," the prisoners were forced to march 85 miles in six days, with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. By the end of the march, which was punctuated with atrocities committed by the Japanese guards, hundreds of Americans and many more Filipinos had died.

The day after Japan bombed the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines began. Within a month, the Japanese had captured Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and the U.S. and Filipino defenders of Luzon were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. For the next three months, the combined U.S.-Filipino army, under the command of U.S. General Jonathan Wainwright, held out impressively despite a lack of naval and air support. Finally, on April 7, with his army crippled by starvation and disease, Wainwright began withdrawing as many troops as possible to the island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay. However, two days later, 75,000 Allied troops were trapped by the Japanese and forced to surrender. The next day, the Bataan Death March began. Of those who survived to reach the Japanese prison camp near Cabanatuan, few lived to celebrate U.S. General Douglas MacArthur's liberation of Luzon in 1945.

In the Philippines, homage is paid to the victims of the Bataan Death March every April on Bataan Day, a national holiday that sees large groups of Filipinos solemnly rewalking parts of the death route.

My GrandMother’s 2nd Husband survived that march and imprisonment. He never spoke of it to us, but she said many a night he’d wake up shouting pleas for one of his friends to stand up and continue. the guards were coming.

Thank you for the post. We need to remember these type of events and the people who sacrificed.

Thanks for the reminder. God Bless all the survivors and RIP/God Bless the those who did not make it.

My maternal grandfather narrowly avoided capture in the Phillipines during WWII. He was injured during MacArthur’s evacuation preparations (nothing heroic folks - he once told me a truck driver backed over him as he walked out of his tent one morning). He had quite a good sense of humor about it.

In any case, the leg injuries he suffered turned out to be about the best thing that happened to him during the War. He was shipped off the island to Australia aboard an incredibly over-loaded “hospital ship” called the USS Mactan, which I have been told was one of, if not THE, last vessels to take “regular grunt” troops away before the Japs caputured the place.

He was a fantastic grandfather! He died in 1982 when I was a senior in high school, and I still miss him.

There was a book written about the Mactan - some time in the late 70s, I think. It had a single small pressing, so it is pretty hard to find, but I would like to get my hands on a copy. My grandfather was interviewed by the author during his research for the book. My mother had a signed copy of it at one time but I do not know what happened to it. She passed away a little over a year ago so I may never find out.

Those were some BRAVE people who served our country in that war.

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Capital of the Third Reich

A center of Jewish life in Germany, Berlin was, as the capital of the Reich, also the center for the planning of the "Final Solution," the Nazi plan to kill the Jews of Europe. The Wannsee Conference, named for the resort district in southwest Berlin where it was held, took place in January 1942. Officials from the Nazi Party, the SS, and the German state met to coordinate and finalize the "solution to the Jewish problem." At the conference, these officials were informed that the SS would be responsible for carrying out the "Final Solution," and that the Jews of Europe would be deported to occupied Poland and killed.


Watch the video: 137 - America Surrenders - The Fall of Bataan - April 10, 1942


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