Howard DD- 179 - History

Howard DD- 179 - History

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(DD-179: dp. 1,060, 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 8'6"; cpl.
101; a. 4 4", 2 3", 12 21" tt.; cl. Wickes)

Howard (DD-179) was launched by Union Iron Works San Francisco, Calif., 26 April 1919; sponsored by Marion Filmer, and commissioned 29 January 1920 at Mare Island' Calif., Comdr. B. M. Stewart in command.

Howard departed San Franci!sco 1 March 1920 to join the Pacific Destroyer force at San Diego. After initial tactical maneuvers and gunnery training, she departed San Diego 3 May for Topolobampo, Mexico, where she was vitally needed to protect American interests. She rejoined her destroyer flotilla 17 May to participate in intensive and prolonged operations in the San Diego area, including torpedo practice, patrol, battle practices and exercises with submarines. Howard decommissioned 27 May 1922.

Recommissioned 29 August 1940, Howard was converted to a minesweeper and reclassified DMS-7. She sailed from San Diego in mid October, arrived at Norfolk on the 29th and proceeded 19 November for duty in the Caribbean. She remained there until 17 May 1941 conducting minesweeping assignments and patrol du~ty enforcing the Neutrality Act. Howard returned to Norfolk 19 May and participated in exercises along the Chesapeake Bay until the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 plunged the United States into the war.

Howard was underway 8 December on escort duty, and in the months that followed, convoyed transports and tankers in the Caribbean and western Atlantic, keeping supply lanes open despite German U-boats. Plans called for an invasion of North Africa in 1942, a massive and hazardous amphibious operation projected across thousands of miles of ocean. In October, Howard joined Admiral Hewitt's Western Naval Task Force at Norfolk. She sailed 24 October and screened flagship Augusta during the Atlantic crossing. As troops landed 8 November she performed both minesweeping and screening duttes. During the irst phase of the Naval Battle of Casablanca that day Howard screened Augusta as the cruiser engaged shore batteries and dueled French battleship Jean Bart. The destroyer then remained off Casablanca and Safi while the American soldiers consolidated their beachheads and moored with victorious naval units at Casablanca 16 November 1942. After performing antisubmarine patrol duties she returned to Norfolk 29 December.

During most of 1943 Howard plied the convoy lanes of the Atlantic and Oaribbean protecting Allied ships from submarine and air attack. She steamed to the West Indies, Panama, Newfoundland, and Iceland on this duty, a key part of which was protecting the oil tankers so vital to the conduct of the war.

As the tempo of operations against Japan increased, Howard was transferred to the western Pacific theater sailing from Norfolk 21 November 1943, and arriving San Diego 7 December. After repairs and training, the ship sailed 25 March, escorting ships to Pearl Harbor and Majuro. She screened a returning convoy to Pearl IIarbor, arriving 24 April, and there began preparations for the gigantic invasion of the Marianas. Joining Adm. "Kelly" Turner's hard-fighting amphibious task force, Roeard sortied 29 May and arrived off Saipan via Eniwetok 13 June. The ship swept minefields during the day and conducted patrol and harassing fire by night until the landings 15 June. Howard then was assigned to screen transports, and made two shuttle voyages to Eniwetok and back to the Marianas before returning to Pearl Harbor 10 August 1944. In capturing the Marianas, the Navy had taken a long stride toward Japan and, as a bonus, had wiped out enemy naval air strength while smashing the Japanese Navy's attempt to defend the strategic island group.

Howard's next operation was the long-awaited invasion of the Philippines, slated for October on the island of Leyte. Following training in the Hawaiian Islands she arrived Eniwetok 24 September, and steamed to Leyte Gulf 17 October. Onee more she carried out dangerous minesweeping duties, clearing paths in Surigao Strait and Leyte Gulf, despite heavy weather. Her task completed, she departed 24 October for Manus with the invasion underway and during the first phase of the giant fleet battle for Leyte Gulf, which ended in a decisive victory for the U.S. Navy.

Training operations in the Admiralties occupied the ship for the next 2 months, but she sailed again from Manus 23 December to take part in the next phase of the Philippines operation, the invasion of Luzon. She rendezvoused at Leyte Gulf 30 December and deparbed in convoy for Lingayen Gulf, 2 January 1945. During this voyage through the Philippines, the Japanese made desperate suicide abtacks, with Hovward splashing one attacker and assisting in destroying many others. Unchecked, the invasion force drove on to the goal, arriving 6 January. The minesweepers began their work under almost constant air nttack; and, by,the time troops landed 9 January three of Eoward's sister ships had been lost. But the assault could not be blocked and proved another of a long series of outstanding amphibious victories, success assured. The veteran minecraft departed to arrive Leybe Gulf 15 January 1945, and Ulithi 5 February.

As the American amphibious sweep surged ever closer to Japan, Howard sailed from Tinian 13 February with the invasion force for Iwo Jima. Assuming her customary role in advance of the landings, she commenced exploratory sweeps off the island 16 February, fighting off numerous air attacks. After the assault 19 February the ship acted as a screening ship, arriving Saipan 2 March. Following another period of screening duty oft Iwo Jima later in March, Ho~ward arrived Pearl Harbor via Guam 4 April 1945.

Newer ships now took the 25-year-old veteran's duty on the front lines. Reclassified AG-106, 5 June 1945, she escorted submarines in Hawaiian waters and acted as plane guard for carrier operations before sailing for the United States 2 October. Transiting the Panama Canal, Howard arrived Philadelphia 2 November and- decommissioned 30 November 1945. In 1946 Howard was sold to Northern Metals Co., Philadelphia, Pa., and scrapped.

Howard received six battle stars for World War II service.

Catherine Howard

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Catherine Howard, (born c. 1524—died February 13, 1542, London, England), fifth wife of King Henry VIII of England. Her downfall came when Henry learned of her premarital affairs.

What is Catherine Howard known for?

Catherine Howard was the fifth wife of King Henry VIII of England. After he was given evidence that she had had affairs before their marriage and that she was having an affair with her cousin, Thomas Culpepper, Henry had her imprisoned and then beheaded for treason.

What were Catherine Howard’s childhood and upbringing like?

Catherine was the daughter of a poverty-stricken younger son of the 2nd duke of Norfolk. She was sent to live with the dowager duchess of Norfolk, who had many young nobles in her care. As a young teen, Catherine was romantically involved with her music teacher and, more seriously, with Francis Dereham.

How did Catherine Howard become queen of England?

Catherine was brought to court as a lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves, Henry’s fourth wife. Henry was quickly displeased with Anne but was thoroughly smitten with Catherine. He had his marriage to Anne annulled and a little over two weeks later married Catherine.

Catherine was one of 10 children of Lord Edmund Howard (died 1539), a poverty-stricken younger son of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk. Henry VIII first became attracted to the young girl in 1540, when he was seeking to end his politically motivated marriage to Anne of Cleves, to whom Catherine was a maid of honour. He had his marriage to Anne annulled on July 9, and on July 28 Henry and Catherine were privately married. He publicly acknowledged her as queen on August 8.

For the next 14 months Henry appeared to be much enamoured of his bride. But in November 1541, he learned that before their marriage Catherine had had affairs: Henry Mannock, a music teacher Francis Dereham, who had called her his wife and her cousin, Thomas Culpepper, to whom she had been engaged. After her marriage to Henry, Catherine had made Dereham her secretary, and it is probable—though still unproved—that she had committed adultery with Culpepper.

The king, initially incredulous, became incensed with these revelations. On February 11, 1542, Parliament passed a bill of attainder declaring it treason for an unchaste woman to marry the king. Two days later Catherine was beheaded in the Tower of London.

USS Howard (DDG-83)

USS Howard (DDG-83) is the thirty-third Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy and the nineteenth built at Bath Iron Works. Her keel was laid down 9 December 1998, launched and christened 20 November 1999 and commissioned 20 October 2001.

The ship is named in honor of First Sgt. Jimmie E. Howard, USMC, (1929–1993), recipient of the Medal of Honor for his leadership of a platoon against repeated attacks by a battalion-sized Viet Cong force. After receiving severe wounds from an enemy grenade, he distributed ammunition to his men and directed air strikes on the enemy. By dawn, his beleaguered platoon still held their position. Howard had also received the Silver Star Medal for his service in the Korean War. Every time USS Howard sets to sea from its homeport of San Diego, it passes within view of Gunnery Sgt. Howard's grave at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery and salutes its namesake.

On 16 February 2007, the USS Howard was awarded the 2006 Battle "E" award. Ώ]

On 28 September 2008, USS Howard was reported to be in pursuit of the Ukrainian ship Faina, which on 25 September 2008 was captured by Somali pirates en route to Kenya. The Faina was reported to be carrying 33 Russian-built T-72 tanks along with ammunition and spare parts. ΐ] Faina was eventually released by the pirates 5 February 2009.

In 2008, Howard received the 2008 Arleigh Burke Fleet Trophy Award and provided humanitarian assistance to the Philippines. Α]

CDR David Zook is the eighth Commanding Officer, relieving CDR Bergmann on 21 September 2012. CDR Andree (Ande) E. Bergmann replaced CDR Scott Switzer on 17 March 2011 as the seventh commanding officer. Scott Switzer was the sixth commanding officer of Howard, replacing CDR Curtis Goodnight on 8 May 2009 during a ceremony at San Diego. Α] Capt. Joseph Nolan, USN was the first Commanding Officer of the USS Howard.

Until its disbandment in 2011, the ship was part of Carrier Strike Group Seven. HOWARD is now a member of Destroyer Squadron TWO THREE and Carrier Strike Group ELEVEN.

World War II Photos

This is a representative sampling of photographs from World War II that can be found in the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration. For more information on materials from World War II visit our World War II Records page.

Many images and other records can be located online in our National Archives Catalog.

For additional select images of WWII, see:

Hitler accepts the ovation of the Reichstag after announcing the `peaceful acquisition of Austria. It set the stage to annex the Czechoslovakian Sudetenland, largely inhabited by a German- speaking population. Berlin, March 1938. 208-N-39843.

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini in Munich, Germany, ca. June 1940. 242-EB-7-38.

A Frenchman weeps as German soldiers march into the French capital, Paris, on June 14, 1940, after the Allied armies had been driven back across France. 208-PP-10A-3.

USS SHAW exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor. December 7, 1941. 80-G-16871.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan, December 8, 1941. 79-AR-82.

We Can Do It. Color poster by J. Howard Miller. 179-WP- 1563.*

Stars over Berlin and Tokyo will soon replace these factory lights reflected in the noses of planes at Douglas Aircraft s Long Beach, Calif., plant. Women workers groom lines of transparent noses for deadly A-20 attack bombers. Alfred Palmer, October 1942. 208-AA-352QQ-5.

Officer at periscope in control room of submarine. Ca. 1942. 80-G-11258.

Howard A. Wooten. Graduated December 1944 from Air Corps School, Tuskegee, AL. Ca. December 1944. 18-T-44-K-17.

Back to a Coast Guard assault transport comes this Marine after two days and nights of Hell on the beach of Eniwetok in the Marshall Islands. His face is grimey with coral dust but the light of battle stays in his eyes. February 1944. 26-G-3394.

Landing on the coast of France under heavy Nazi machine gun fire are these American soldiers, shown just as they left the ramp of a Coast Guard landing boat. CPhoM. Robert F. Sargent, June 6, 1944. 26-G-2343.

Nurses of a field hospital who arrived in France via England and Egypt after three years service. Parker, August 12, 1944. 112-SGA-44-10842.

Cpl. Carlton Chapman. is a machine-gunner in an M-4 tank, attached to a Motor Transport unit near Nancy, France. 761st Mt. Bn. November 5, 1944. Ryan. 111-SC-196106-S.

Flag raising on Iwo Jima. Joe Rosenthal, Associated Press, February 23, 1945. 80-G-413988.

Standing in the grassy sod bordering row upon row of white crosses in an American cemetery, two dungaree-clad Coast Guardsmen pay silent homage to the memory of a fellow Coast Guardsman who lost his life in action in the Ryukyu Islands. Benrud, ca. 1945. 26-G-4739.

Pfc Angelo B. Reina, 391st Inf. Regt., guards a lonely Oahu beach position. Kahuku, Oahu. Rosenberg, Hawaii, March 1945. 111-SC-221867.

Col. Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., pilot of the ENOLA GAY, the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, waves from his cockpit before the takeoff, 6 August 1945. 208-LU-13H-5.

New York City celebrating the surrender of Japan. They threw anything and kissed anybody in Times Square. Lt. Victor Jorgensen, August 14, 1945. 80-G-377094.

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Wickes Class Destroyers

The Wickes Class Destroyers were the first of the famous mass produced flush-deckers of the First World War, and the only type to see active service during that war. Along with the Clemson class they provided the bulk of the US destroyer force during the inter-war years, and many survived to play varied roles during the Second World War.

The Caldwell class destroyers introduced the flushdeck layout, which was introduced in an attempt to improve the stability of American destroyers. This required a wider beam, which then required a reduction in draft to avoid adding too much drag. A raised forecastle would have reduced the amount of weight that could be allocated to the ship's main longitudinal structures, and so the flush-deck layout was adopted.

The Wickes class was designed for the FY 17 programme, which included 35knot battlecruisers and the 35kt Omaha class scout cruisers. The Navy decided that it wanted its new destroyers to match that speed, so they could operate with the new fleet. This required a 50% increase in power compared to the Caldwell class. This was achieved by adding 90-100 tons more machinery and reduction gearing to improve the efficiency of the engine. The sloped keel of the Caldwell class was replaced with a level keel, which reduced drag and allowed for more horizontal propeller shafts. The Caldwell class hull was already strong enough to cope with these changes, so no significant changes were needed there. The General Board specifications called for a speed of 35kts on trial at 1,150 tons and endurance of 2,500nm at 20kts, while the actual contracts called for 3,600nm at 15kts.

The first twenty Wickes class destroyers were authorised by Congress in 1916, as part of a larger programme for 50 destroyers. Another 15 were funded on 3 March 1917, just one month before the US entry into the war. Another twenty-six were ordered in May-April 1917. At this point the General Board of the Navy wanted a massive increase in destroyer production, but didn't want to produce more costly high-speed fleet destroyers. The General Board wanted a mix of a slower mass-produced type and high-speed fleet destroyers, while the Board on the

Submarine Menace wanted 200 austere destroyers. While work was carried out on the new anti-submarine designs, 200 destroyers were approved. The first fifty were to be of the Wickes class, in order to speed up production, bring the total number ordered up to 111. The other 150 were eventually built as Clemson Class Destroyers, which ended up as high speed fleet destroyers with extra fuel capacity.

In the end this massive programme wasn't that effective. Less than half of the Wickes class destroyers arrived in time to take part in the First World War, with only one from the fourth batch seeing combat. None of the Clemson class ships were commissioned in time for the First World War. The US Navy did enter the inter-war period with a massive destroyer fleet, but one that was increasingly outdated.

Two basic detailed designs were produced. Bath produced one, which used Parsons turbines (with a few Westinghouse turbines) and Normand, Thornycroft or White-Foster boilers. This design was used by all non-Bethlehem yards.

Bethlehem Steel produced the second design, which was used at their Quincy, Fore River, Massachusetts and San Francisco Yards. This used Curtiss turbines and mainly Yarrow boilers. These tended to deteriorate in service, and in 1929 the remaining 60 Yarrow powered destroyers were decommissioned.

The quality of these ships varied. Range was the biggest problem. USS Wickes had a range of 5,000nm at 15kts and 3,400nm at 20kts, beating the contract requirements. Cramp-built boats averaged 3,990nm at 15kts and 3,148kts and 20kts. In general the Bath design was considered the better of the two, and ships built to it were called 'Long Radius Boats'. Newport News attempted to reach 3,500nm at 15kts using geared cruising turbines, but these only began to appear after August 1918. The Quincy built boats weren't as impressive. USS Bell managed 4,000nm at 15kts on trials, but these were always conducted with unrealistically light loads. In practice her Commanding Officer reported 3,400nm at 13-15kts. USS Stribling only managed 2,300nm and USS Gregory 2,400nm. These lower figures weren't really good enough for anti-submarine warfare in the Atlantic, where all of those ships completed before the Armistice were used. The problem was solved in the Clemson class by adding 35% more fuel, meaning that the worst of the Clemson class had better endurance than the best of the Wickes class.

In September 1918 the C/O of USS Wickes produced a report on his ship. It behaved well at maximum displacement with winds not above force 6 - in these circumstances it performed just as well as the 740 ton 'flivver's and 1,000 ton classes. If the ship was light it rolled excessively in winds between force 4 and force 7. She held a course better than earlier destroyers, but at the same time had a large turning circle and turned badly at light loads - both of these were blamed on the V-shaped stern, which also reduced the available deck space at the stern, now needed for anti-submarine weapons. Head winds had a greater effect on the flush deckers than on the earlier types with raised forecastles. She was very wet in Atlantic winter conditions - indeed he said that in winter weather her 'normal condition &hellip is practically that of a submersible', with no-one able to safely walk around on deck. Compared to the earlier classes the 740 ton vessels did better in the short heavy seas off the Irish coast, but the 1,000 tonners and flushdeckers suffered less damage. Compared to their British allies, the Wickes rode heavy seas better than pre-Flotilla Leader Type British destroyers and had sturdier weather deck fittings but weaker hulls.

In general the Wickes was judged to be a better convoy escort that its British equivalents. This was only true of the Bath-designed ships. The more numerous Bethlehem types only had a designed range of 2,250nm at 20 knots, enough for wartime operations from Irish bases, but not enough to escort a transatlantic convoy. A number of solutions were suggested in October 1918, including replacing the forward magazine or one of the boilers with new fuel tanks. These changes were ruled out during the war as being too disruptive to production, and in the post-war period as being too costly. A post-war plan to complete fifty as long range escorts was also cancelled, but during the 1920s some valuable work was done on fuelling at sea, a key technique during the Pacific War.

The Wickes class destroyers were ordered in four batches. The 1916 act authorized 50 destroyers (DD-75 to DD-124), of which twenty were to be built at once (DD-75 to DD-94) under the FY 17 budget. The original plan was for sixteen to be built on the Atlantic coast and four on the Pacific coast if at all possible.

The second batch was funded by an act of 3 March 1917, which provided direct funding for fifteen destroyers (DD-95 to DD-109). This act also created a Naval Emergency Fund that could be used for additional destroyers at the President's discretion.

The third batch was ordered in May-April 1917, and took the total above the original fifty. Twenty six were ordered in this batch (DD-110 to DD-135).

The fourth batch of fifty (DD-136 to DD-185 was ordered in the summer of 1917 as part of a larger batch of 200 destroyers, most of which were built as Clemson class destroyers.

A total of 111 Wickes class destroyers were thus ordered in four batches. At first production was split between the Bath Iron Works, the Bethlehem Steel yards at Quincy and San Francisco and the Mare Island Navy Yard, but as the production programme expanded eight different yards were used, with rather variable results.

None of the four batches was entirely completed in time to see wartime service. Fourteen of the twenty ships in the first batch, seven from the second batch, eight from the third batch and only one from the fourth batch saw active service during the First World War (a total of 30), and in most cases that came late in 1918. Another six ships were commissioned before the Armistice but saw no service, for a total of 36 from 111 ships commissioned on or before Armistice Day. The following Clemson class did even worse, with none arriving in time to make any contribution during the First World War.

The first batch of 20 was split between Bath (four ships - DD-75 to DD-78), Bethlehem (fifteen ships - DD-79 to DD-92, eight built at Quincy, seven at San Francisco) and the Mare Island Navy Yard (two ships - DD-93 and DD-94).

Most of these ships saw wartime service. All of the Quincy and Mare Island ships were ready in time, as were three Bath ships - the last was commissioned on 11 November 1918. Bethlehem's San Francisco plant didn't do so well - only one of her ships saw wartime service and a second was commissioned before the armistice but saw no service).

All fifteen ships funded in 3 March 1917 batch were built by Bethlehem (DD-95 to DD-109). Quincy built eight, of which seven saw wartime service. Once again San Francisco was slower - two of her seven were commissioned before the armistice but saw no service, the last five appeared after the end of the war.

Batch Three

In April 1917 the Secretary of the Navy asked the six private destroyer builders what capacity they had for ships beyond DD-109, with the aim of ordering another twenty six ships (DD-110 to DD-135).

Bethlehem's Union Iron Works at San Francisco also couldn&rsquot guarantee delivery until 1919, and neither Bethlehem Yard could take more than six orders. One battleship and two scout cruisers were cancelled at their Quincy plant in an attempt to free up space, but at this stage only San Francisco received a fresh order, for three ships (DD-110 to DD-112). All three were commissioned after the end of the war.

Five scout cruisers were cancelled at Cramp, and six destroyers replaced them (DD-113 to DD-118). Five of these ships saw wartime service, and the last was commissioned before the armistice but saw no service, an impressive record.

Three battleships and two battlecruisers were cancelled at Newport News, and were replaced with six destroyers (DD-119 to DD-124). Three arrived in time for wartime service, one was commissioned but saw no service and two were post-war commissions.

Three battleships and one battlecruiser were cancelled at New York Shipbuilders and replaced with six destroyers (DD-125 to DD-130). None of these ships were commissioned in time to see wartime service.

Bath was already building four ships and said they couldn't add any more before 1919. Even so they received an order for four ships (DD-131 to DD-134). They were proved correct, and the first of these ships wasn't ready until January 1919.

Finally the Charleston Navy Yard was asked to build one ship, DD-135. This was probably the slowest to appear of any Wickes class ships - it was laid down on 29 July 1918 and not completed until 20 April 1920.

Only eight of these twenty six ships arrived in time to see wartime service.

Batch Four (DD-136 to DD-185)

In July 1917 a telegram was sent to the shipbuilders announcing that orders were to be placed for the final fifty Wickes class ships, to be completed within 18 months. By this point the US ship building industry was already working at full capacity, and so although places were found for all fifty, only one ship, built at Mare Island Navy Yard, arrived in time to see wartime service. Another of their ships was commissioned before the end of the war, but the other 48 ships in this batch were commissioned after the end of the war (as were all of the Clemson class ships that followed).

Six ships were ordered from the Mare Island Navy Yard (DD-136 to DD-141). Cramp built fifteen (DD-142 to DD-156), New York Shipbuilding four (DD-157 to DD-160), Bethlehem's Quincy plant ten (DD-161 to DD-170), Bethlehem's Union Iron Works at San Francisco ten (DD-171 to DD-180) and Newport News five (DD-181 to DD-185).

The two Bethlehem Shipbuilding Co yards produced the largest number of ships, with Quincy and San Francisco producing 26 ships each, for a total of 52. This wasn't entirely a positive things, as the Yarrow boilers used in Bethlehem ships deteriorated badly over time, and in 1929 the Navy scrapped sixty of its remaining Yarrow boilered destroyers.

Next came the William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building Co of Philadelphia, which built 21 ships.

The other yards produced smaller numbers of ships. Newport News produced 11, New York Shipbuilding produced 10, Bath and the Mare Island Navy Yard both produced 8 and the Charleston Navy Yard produced 1, rather slowly.

Private Yards

Bath built four ships from batch one (DD-75 to DD-78) and four from batch three (DD-131 to DD-134). Three from the first batch were commissioned in time to see active service during the First World War, and the last was commissioned on 11 November 1918. All four ships from batch three were commissioned after the end of the war.

Bethlehem Overview

Bethlehem received orders in all four batches. In batch one they built DD-79 to DD-92. They produced all fifteen ships of batch two (DD-95 to DD-99), only three in batch three (DD-110 to DD-112) and twenty from batch four (DD-161 to DD-180). Production was equally split between their Quincy, Fore River yard and the Union Iron Works, San Francisco. The two yards performed rather differently.

Bethlehem Quincy, Fore River

Quincy produced eight ships from batch one (DD-79 to DD-86), eight from batch two (DD-95 to DD-102) and ten from batch four (DD-161 to DD-170). All eight of the first batch arrived in time to serve in the First World War, as did seven of the eight from batch two, with one (DD-100) being commissioned during the war but not seeing service. All ten ships from batch four were commissioned post-war.

Bethlehem San Francisco/ Union Iron Works

Bethlehem's San Francisco Yard didn't perform as well. They produced ships in all four batches - six from batch one (DD-87 to DD-92), seven from batch two (DD-103 to DD-109), three from batch three (DD-110 to DD-112) and ten from batch four (DD-171 to 180).

Of these twenty six ships only one arrived in time to see service during the First World War (DD-87). One more from batch one and two from batch two were commissioned during the war but didn't see service (partly because of the extra time needed to get from San Francisco to the war zone in the Atlantic). Four ships from batch one, five from batch two and all thirteen from batch three and batch four arrived after the end of the war.

New York Shipbuilding

New York Shipbuilding entered the production programme late, and built six from batch three (DD-125 to DD-130) and four from batch four (DD-157 to DD-160). All ten of these ships were commissioned after the Armistice, and all four from batch four were also launched after the war.

Newport News

Newport News was another late arrival, and built six from batch three (DD-119 to DD-124) and five from batch four (DD-181 to DD-185). In total they built twenty five Wickes and Clemson class ships, and another six Clemson class ships were cancelled (DD-200 to DD-205).

Newport News was one of the more efficient builders. Three from batch three arrived just in time to see wartime service, and a fourth was commissioned but saw no service. The last two from batch three and all four from batch four were commissioned after the end of the war.

The Newport News ships were the only Wickes class ships not to use geared turbines. Instead they were powered by Curtis direct drive turbines.

William Cramp and Sons Ship and Engine Building Co, Philadelphia

Cramp was also introduced to the programme with batch three, and also performed well. They built six from batch three (DD-113 to DD-118) and fifteen from batch four (DD-142 to DD-156).

Five of the batch three ships arrived in time for wartime service and the sixth was commissioned before the Armistice. All fifteen from batch four were commissioned after the end of the war.

Navy Yard Production

Mare Island Navy Yard

The Mare Island Navy Yard was present at the start and end of the production programme, building two ships from batch one (DD-93 and DD-94) and six from batch four (DD-136 to DD-141). Both of the ships from batch one saw wartime service. They were also the only yard to complete any ships from the fourth batch in time for wartime service, with USS Boggs (DD-136) seeing some service off the US Coast in the last few weeks of the war. A second ship was commissioned during the war but saw no service, and another four were commissioned in the post war period.

The Mare Island Yard was responsible for the quickest construction of a Wickes class ship. USS Ward (DD-139) was laid down on 15 May 1918, launched on 1 June 1918 and commissioned on 24 July 1918, a total of only seventy days. Ironically after all of that effort she saw no wartime service.

Charleston Navy Yard

The Charleston Navy Yard only produced one member of the class, USS Tillman (DD-135). This was probably the slowest to be completed - she was laid down on 29 July 1918 and launched on 7 July 1919, but wasn't commissioned until 30 April 1920.

First World War Service

Despite all of the effort that went into their construction, the Wickes class ships didn't make that big a contribution to the American war effort during the First World War. Only 36 were commissioned before the Armistice (two more were commissioned on 11 November) and only 26 saw any service. Most of them didn't enter service until the last few months of the war (some of the later ships only managed a single escort mission before the armistice).

The US Navy thus relied on its older destroyers, even using the original Bainbridge class ships. Those ships constructed on the West Coast were less likely to see combat, simply because of the length of the journey from San Francisco to the key bases in the US north east. The last member of the class to see service was USS Breese (DD-122), commissioned on 23 October 1918 and which spent a few days on convoy escort duties just before the Armistice.

Those ships that did arrive in time were thrown into the battle of the Atlantic, mainly operating from Queenstown, Brest or the US East Coast. After all of the arguments over the correct role for the destroyer - offensive torpedo attack, or gun armed fleet defence, none of the Wickes class performed either of those roles during the First World War, instead becoming convoy escorts and anti-submarine ships.

April 1918 (3)
6th: USS Little (DD-79), USS Fairfax (DD-93)
26th: USS Kimberly (DD-80)

May 1918 (2)
15th: USS Sigourney (DD-81)
24th: USS Stevens (DD-86)

June 1918 (4)
1st: USS Gregory (DD-82), USS Taylor (DD-94)
13th: USS Colhoun (DD-85)
24th: USS Rathburne (DD-113)

July 1918 (7)
1st: USS Dyer (DD-84)
2nd: USS Stringham (DD-83)
20th: USS Talbot (DD-114)
24th: USS Ward (DD-139)
26th: USS Montgomery (DD-121)
31st: USS Wickes (DD-75), USS Bell (DD-95)

August 1918 (6)
8th: USS Waters (DD-115)
16th: USS Stribling (DD-96)
21st: USS Murray (DD-97), USS Israel (DD-98)
22nd: USS Lamberton (DD-119)
24th: USS Philip (DD-76)

September 1918 (9)
7th: USS McKee (DD-87)
9th: USS Dent (DD-116)
11th: USS Luce (DD-99)
18th: USS Dorsey (DD-117)
20th: USS Schley (DD-103)
23rd: USS Maury (DD-100), USS Boggs (DD-136)
30th: USS Woolsey (DD-77), USS Radford (DD-120)

October 1918 (5)
2nd: USS Lea (DD-118)
19th: USS Robinson (DD-88)
23rd: USS Breese (DD-122)
24th: USS Mahan (DD-102)
26th: USS Lansdale (DD-101)

November 1918
11th: USS Evans (DD-78), USS Champlin (DD-104)

Interwar Period

Losses/ Scrapped

A number of ships were lost or struck off in the interwar period.

USS Woolsey (DD-77) was lost in a collision on 26 February 1921.
USS DeLong (DD-129) grounded on 1 December 1921, and was struck off on 1922

USS Hazelwood (DD-107) was struck off in 1935

USS Dyer (DD-84), USS Stevens (DD-86), USS McKee (DD-87), USS Harding (DD-91), USS Champlin (DD-104), USS Mugford (DD-105), USS Radford (DD-120), USS Meredith (DD-165), USS Bush (DD-166), USS Renshaw (DD-176), USS O'Bannon (DD-177) were struck off in 1936

USS Kimberly (DD-80), USS Gridley (DD-92), USS Bell (DD-95) were struck off in 1937

USS Taylor (DD-94) and USS Walker (DD-163) were struck off in 1938

Most of the ships struck off in 1935-38 were Bethlehem built ships with Yarrow boilers that decayed in use. The only exceptions were the Taylor (DD-94), a Mare Island ship, and the Radford (DD-120), a Newport News ship.

Converted to Fast Transports - APD

In 1938-39 the Caldwell class destroyer USS Manley (DD-74) was converted into a fast troop transport, with the new classification AG-28 (Auxiliary). As converted she could carry 120 Marines, with landing boats replacing the torpedo tubes. This first conversion was a success, and so a more ambitious refit was ordered. This time she lost her forward boilers and their two funnels, all the torpedo tubes and one waist gun (the other waist gun was moved to the centre line). She could carry a 75mm pack howitzer on the deck and four 36ft assault boats (either LCPL or LCPR), and a Marine rifle company for 48 hours. The Manley became APD-1, the first of a sizable group of conversions.

In May 1940 the Navy put in place a major programme of conversions, which included five more fast transports (APD-2 to APD-6). This time Wickes class ships were used.

Anther twenty six destroyers were converted into APDs after the US entry into the Second World War - twelve Wickes class and fifteen Clemson class ships.

Wartime Conversions
October 1942: APD-7 to APD-12 (three Wickes, three Clemson)
December 1942: APD-13 (one Clemson)
January 1943: APD-14 to APD-18 (four Wickes, one Clemson)
July 1943: APD-19 (one Wickes)
August 1943: APD-21, APD-23, APD-24 (one Wickes, two Clemson)
October 1943: APD-20 (one Wickes)
December 1943: APD-22 (one Wickes)
January 1944: APD-29 (one Clemson)
May 1944: APD-25 (one Wickes)
March-June 1944: APD-31 to APD-36 (six Clemson class AVDs)

Wickes Class conversions
APD-2: Colhoun (DD-85)
APD-3: Gregory (DD-82)
APD-4: Little (DD-79)
APD-5: McKean (DD-90)
APD-6: Stringham (DD-83)
APD-7: Talbot (DD-114)
APD-8: Waters (DD-115)
APD-9: Dent (DD-116)
APD-14: Schley (DD-99)
APD-15: Kilty (DD-137)
APD-16: Ward (DD-139)
APD-17: Crosby (DD-164)
APD-19: Tattnall (DD-125)
APD-20 - USS Roper (DD-147)
APD-21: Dickerson (DD-157)
APD-22: Herbert (DD-160)
APD-25: Rathburne (DD-113)

Converted to Minelayers - DM

In 1920 DD-96 to DD-102, DD 110 to DD-112 and DD-171 to DD-174) were converted into mine layers as DM-1 to DM-14. This involved removing all of the torpedo tubes and adding storage space and dropping equipment for mines. The 4in gun battery was retained.

In 1930 six of the first batch were scrapped (DM-5, DM-7, DM-8, DM-10, DM-11 and DM-14). Four new conversions were approved, and DD-121 to DD-124 became DM-15 to DM-18 (although not in the same numerical order).

In 1936-37 the last eight of the original fourteen were scrapped, and were replaced with four Clemson class conversions.

In 1944 the 'ultimate approved' battery for the mine layers became two or three 3in/ 50 dual purpose guns and twin power operated Bofors guns. By this point there were four Wickes class and four Clemson class conversions in service. The Wickes class conversions were all struck off in 1945-46.

DM-1 - USS Stribling (DD-96), struck off 1936
DM-2 - USS Murray (DD-97), struck off 1936
DM-3 - USS Israel (DD-98), struck off 1937
DM-4 - USS Luce (DD-99), struck off 1936
DM-5 - USS Maury (DD-100), struck off 1930
DM-6 - USS Lansdale (DD-101), struck off 1937
DM-7 - USS Maham (DD-102), struck off 1930
DM-8 - USS Hart (DD-110), struck off 1931
DM-9 - USS Ingraham (DD-111), struck off 1937
DM-10 - USS Ludlow (DD-112), struck off 1930
DM-11 - USS Burns (DD-171), sold 1932
DM-12 - USS Anthony (DD-172), struck off 1936
DM-13 - USS Sproxton (DD-173), struck off 1936
DM-14 - USS Rizal (DD-174), struck off 1931
DM-15 - USS Gamble (DD-123), scuttled 1945
DM-16 - USS Ramsay (DD-124), struck off 1945
DM-17 - USS Montgomery (DD-121), struck off 1945
DM-18 - USS Breese (DD-122), struck off 1946

Converted to Fast Mine Sweepers

As part of the May 1940 programme four Wickes class ships from DesDiv 52 were converted into fast minesweepers as DMS-1 to DMS-4. All of the torpedo tubes were removed and a false squared off stern was added to support mine sweeping davits. Another four ships were recommissioned to serve as DMS-5 to DMS-8. In 1941 another ten ships were converted (DMS-9 to DMS-18). Most of these were Clemson class ships, but DMS-18 was a Wickes class.

At first these ships kept their 4in guns, but in 1942 they were scheduled to get 3in/ 50 dual purpose guns as they were expected to face air attack. By 1944 this was reduced to two or three 3in/ 50 dual purpose guns and twin power operated Bofors guns.

DMS-1: USS Dorsey (DD-117)
DMS-2: USS Lamberton (DD-119)
DMS-3: USS Boggs (DD-136)
DMS-4: USS Elliot (DD-146)
DMS-5: USS Palmer (DD-161)
DMS-6: USS Hogan (DD-178)
DMS-7: USS Howard (DD-179)
DMS-8: USS Stansbury (DD-180)
DMS-18 - USS Hamilton (DD-141)

To Royal Navy

Fifty flushdeck destroyers went to the Royal Navy under the Destroyer for Bases deal of September 1940, where they became the Town Class. The fifty were made up of three Caldwell class ships, twenty-seven Wickes class ships and twenty Clemson class ships.

USS Wickes (DD-75) - HMS Montgomery
USS Philip (DD-76) - HMS Lancaster
USS Evans (DD-78) - HMS Mansfield
USS Sigourney (DD-81) - HMS Newport
USS Robinson (DD-88) - HMS Newmarket
USS Ringgold (DD-89) - HMS Newark
USS Fairfax (DD-93) - HMS Richmond
USS Williams (DD-108) - HMS St. Clair
USS Twiggs (DD-127) - HMS Leamington
USS Buchanan (DD-131) - HMS Campbeltown
USS Aaron Ward (DD-132) - HMS Castleton
USS Hale (DD-133) - HMS Caldwell
USS Crowninshield (DD-134) - HMS Chelsea
USS Tillman (DD-135) - HMS Wells
USS Claxton (DD-140) - HMS Salisbury
USS Yarnall (DD-143) - HMS Lincoln
USS Thatcher (DD-162) - HMCS Niagara
USS Cowell (DD-167) - HMS Brighton
USS Maddox (DD-168) - HMS Georgetown
USS Foote (DD-169) - HMS Roxborough
USS Kalk (DD-170) - HMS Hamilton
USS Mackenzie (DD-175) - HMCS Annapolis
USS Hopewell (DD-181) - HMS Bath
USS Thomas (DD-182) - HMS St. Albans
USS Haraden (DD-183) - HMCS Columbia
USS Abbot (DD-184) - HMS Charlestown
USS Bagley (DD-185) - HMS St. Marys

Second World War Service

The Wickes class ships performed an impressively wide range of tasks during the Second World War. The conversions have been dealt with above, and many of them were heavily involved in the fighting, especially in the Pacific, where the fast transports played a part in many amphibious landings. A significant number of members of the class were still unmodified destroyers. Some operated as rear area patrol vessels, but their main contribution came in the Battle of the Atlantic, where they served as convoy escort vessels and anti-submarine warfare ships, a repeat of their First World War duties.

Howard DD- 179 - History

"I hesitate to use superlatives to describe this man's ability for fear I may sound trite, but how else does one describe an athlete who is phenomenal. In pro sports today the standouts are referred to as super stars. Howard Hill was a super SUPER star. He is one of the few men to become a genuine legend during his own lifetime." Bob Swinehart, a pretty fair country archer himself, made those statements in Sagittarius. Has Hill's popularity waned since his death in 1975? As a collector of archery books I keep pretty close to the market, always searching for that rare, elusive title and over the past year I've seen the demand for Hunting The Hard Way and Wild Adventure sky-rocket. It doesn't appear that Howard Hill shall be forgotten anytime soon.

Was Howard Hill the super star Swinehart claimed? Is he, as many suggest, the greatest archer of this century and possibly of all time? These questions probably are best suited for late night campfire discussions, but certainly, it would be difficult to dispute that Howard Hill was the complete archer. He could do it all and like Elvis, we will never see the like again.

Hill was a physical power-house, weighing better than 200 pounds and standing six feet two inches in height with huge forearms. Coupled with his strength and size was an athletic ability that enabled him to excel in most sports. He played football, basketball and baseball at Auburn University. He played semi-pro baseball for seven years. While living in Miami, Florida, Hill worked for the Hughes Tool Company during the week and as a golf pro for the Opa Locka Golf Course on weekends. Only one thing kept him from playing professional golf, he couldn't putt. We are all fortunate that when he read The Witchery Of Archery by Maurice Thompson, his life turned around and a life long dedication to the promotion of Archery became his guiding light.

Howard Hill designed and made all of his own equipment. He was a proponent of heavy bows, heavy arrows and 3:1 ratio, cut on impact two-edge broadheads with a concave cutting surface. He liked longbows with draw weights of from 75 to 100 pounds for hunting with his preferred weight in the 80 to 90 pound range. Two of his favorite bows were Grandpa , an 85 pound bow generally used for hunting big game and exhibition shooting and Grandma , pulling 65 pounds which Howard used occasionally for small game hunting.

When pressed as to why he used this type bow, he replied, "I use the straight-end split bamboo longbow for the simple reason that it requires a less exacting hold and loose to get necessary accuracy while hunting, where quick shots must be made from unconventional positionsstanding, kneeling or sittingnot the traditional target archer's pose."
Howard's hunting produced a record of game taken that probably will never be surpassed. He's most famous animal is certain to be the elephant he took in 1950 while hunting and filming in Africa, gaining Howard the fame of being the first white man to kill an elephant with bow and arrow. He used a 41 inch aluminum arrow tipped with an enlarged version of his classic Howard Hill Broadhead weighing in at 1700 grains. The bow he used had a draw weight of 115 pounds.

Howard Hill earned many awards during his career to include the Maurice Thompson Medal of Honor in 1963, the National Archery Association's most prestigious award and was one of the first group of archers to be inducted into the Archery Hall of Fame. He won 196 Field Archery tournaments in a row, wrote the first set of Archery Golf Rules in 1928, won seven National Archery Golf tournaments, won the NAA Flight Championship in 1928 setting a new record and as incredible as it may seem, drew 35,000 spectators in Grants Park, Chicago, in 1941, to an archery shooting exhibition he performed. The crowd afterwards literally tore the shirt off his back and also took his bow, arrows and quiver for souvenirs. Do we have anyone today that can pull a similar crowd? Doubtful.
Howard became involved with the film making industry as an archery consultant and performed the actual shooting scenes in eight movies. Who can forget Howard's incredible shooting in " The Adventures of Robin Hood," starring Errol Flynn. Howard shot 11 stuntmen in this movie, but due to retakes with some scenes, by his own admission, he actually made 45 shots on stuntmen. These stuntmen were protected by a pad approximately 14" high and 12" wide. This pad was comprised of a felt backing, a 1/16 inch steel plate and three inches of balsa wood on the front to catch and hold the blunt arrows Howard used. Other than a few bruises from the impact of his hard hitting bows, no stuntmen were injured.

Some of Howard's more entertaining outings were ones taken with Ed Hill in that big tired, Model A Ford Ed had transformed into a dune buggy affectionately name "The Whoopie." Archers like Ken and Walt Wilhelm, Skeet Moore and Wayne Stotler, to name a few, hunted with Howard in California, Nevada and other Western states. They were all connected by their love of the bow, a large capacity to enjoy life and fellowship, and it made little difference whether they were hunting trophy mule deer or bouncing bunnies out of desert scrub. Those were wonderful days for archery and we owe much to Howard, Skeet, Walt, Ken, Ed, Wayne and a host of others for their contributions.

For an in depth view of the man they called "Ol' One Shot," check out Howard Hill, The Man And The Legend by Craig Ekin, Hunting The Hard Way and Wild Adventure by Howard Hill and the chapter in Sagittarius by Bob Swinehart titled "Living With A LegendHoward Hill."

He's Not Chevy, He's an Asshole: A History of Chevy Chase's Horrific Behavior

"When you become famous, you've got like a year or two where you act like a real asshole," Bill Murray told Tom Shales and James Miller when they interviewed him for Live from New York, their oral history of Saturday Night Live. "You can't help yourself. It happens to everybody. You've got like two years to pull it together — or it's permanent." He was talking, of course, about Chevy Chase, his opponent in a famous backstage fistfight. The two are friendly now, and it seems as though Murray wanted to imply that Chase had "pulled himself together" following his sudden rise to fame.

But by most accounts, Chevy Chase's assholedom was permanent.

The history of Chevy Chase being a jerk is long and varied, and from what I've heard Chevy is hard at work creating new legends of his own dickishness as the old stories become more widely known. I heard a recent story about Chevy unloading on a nervous intern who spilled a small amount of Coca-Cola in front of Chase and SNL creator Lorne Michaels. "Why don't you just piss in it?" he snarled.

But you don't even need to hunt down anecdotes of Chevy screaming at interns: between the hundreds of thousands of words that have been written about Saturday Night Live, his weirdly public ongoing spats with actors and writers on Community, and the unbelievably dickish and petty interviews he's given over the years, there's plenty of evidence that Chevy Chase is an asshole. Here's a working timeline. If you've got any Chevy Chase stories, send them my way at [email protected]

Saturday Night Live Season One

Who He Pissed Off: John Belushi, Al Franken, Laraine Newman, Gilda Radner, and basically the whole cast and writing staff of Saturday Night Live
How: According to Jeff Weingrad and Doug Hill's Saturday Night: A Backstage History of Saturday Night Live, Chevy was known as "a viciously effective put-down artist, the sort who could find the one thing somebody was sensitive about — a pimple on the nose, perhaps — and then kid about it, mercilessly." In meetings, heɽ smirk at writers' suggestions and say "gee, I don't think that's very good at all." As the show, and in particular Chevy, took off, his coworkers accused him of not giving them enough credit in interviews he was also doing too much coke and spending much of his time bragging about his fame and ordering people around the set.

Who He Pissed Off: Johnny Carson
How: Carson once said Chevy "couldn't ad-lib a fart after a baked-bean dinner" after Chevy dismissed chatter that he could be the next Carson by telling New York, "Iɽ never be tied down for five years interviewing TV personalities." (In fairness, he never was.)

Who He Pissed Off: Lorne Michaels
How: Lorne and Chevy were close friends, until Chevy, without warning, decided to leave the show at the end of his contract and do a handful of primetime specials for NBC, severing his relationship with Bernie Brillstein, the manager he shared with Lorne, and signing with William Morris in the process. "Chevy was a scumbag the way he left," one of the writers told Weingrad and Hill. "Deceitful and dishonest about the whole thing." When staff writer Tom Davis asked why he was leaving, Chevy said "Money. Lots of money."

After SNL

Who He Pissed Off: Jacqueline Carlin
How: Carlin, whom Chevy married right after he left the show, filed for divorce 17 months later, citing "threats of violence." He then cited his engagement and impending marriage to Carlin as a reason for leaving Saturday Night Live — a "blame the bitch" strategy, according to one of the women on the show.

Who He Pissed Off: Jane Curtin
How: When Chevy returned to host the show for the first time after his departure, he insisted on doing the "Weekend Update" segment that had been his trademark. According to some accounts, including Chevy's, this pissed Jane off in Live from New York, Jane insists that she didn't really care, and that "Chevy was expecting [a reaction] that he wasn't getting from me."

Who He Pissed Off: Bill Murray
How: According to Chevy, John Belushi had spent a lot of time poisoning the cast against him — in particular Bill Murray, who was more or less his replacement on the show. Bill apparently confronted Chevy about something (possibly the "Weekend Update" situation), the two traded barbs (Murray told Chase to go home and fuck his wife Chase told Murray his face looked like something Neil Armstrong had landed on), and the confrontation turned physical. Chase's account of the fight in Live from New York is hilarious, both for being so self-serving and for his insistence that he — an upper-middle- class fourteenth-generation New Yorker — had "grown up on the edge of East Harlem" and "been in a lot of fistfights." "It wasn't as if I was simply some guy who had never seen the other side of the tracks," Chase, who went to Dalton and the Stockbridge school, said. "I had."

Who He Pissed Off: Terry Sweeney, Robert Downey Jr., Jon Lovitz and the cast of the 1985-1986 season
How: Chase was back to host again in 1985 and seemed to piss off literally everyone. He made fun of Robert Downey Jr.'s father ("Didn't your father used to be a successful director? Whatever happened to him? Boy, he sure died, you know, he sure went to hell.") and was relentlessly hateful to Terry Sweeney, suggesting that SNL's first openly gay cast member star in a sketch where they weighed him every week to see if he had AIDS. "So then he ended up having to apologize and actually coming to my office," Sweeney says. "He was really furious that he had to apologize to me."

(As a coda to Chevy's SNL assholery, we'll note that he ran into Live from New York author James Miller a few years after the book's publication. Angry with his status in the book as a recurring villain, Chevy proceeded to prove everyone right by immediately going off on Miller. And one of the authors received a sobbing phone call from his wife Jayni.)

The Chevy Chase Show

Who He Pissed Off: The entire television-viewing public.
How: Chevy returned to television in 1993 with a high-profile attempt by Fox to fill the void left by a retiring Johnny Carson. In a New York cover profile from before the show's premiere (highly recommended, if only for the parenthetical where Chase tries to blame the huge flop Nothing But Trouble on poor Dan Aykroyd) the show already feels doomed to fail — the only preview we get is a game Chevy wants to play with audience members involving putting rubber bands around their heads and "racing" by scrunching their faces — and within five weeks of its debut, it was canceled. He later told Time he wanted to do something "much darker and more improv," and blamed network constraints — and not his own clear nervousness and incompetence — for the show's failure

Who He Pissed Off: Howard Stern
How: In 1992, Chase was recorded talking shit about Stern in between commercial breaks on Larry King's show Stern got hold of the tape and played it on-air before calling Chase, who told Stern never to call again. (A few years later, Stern and Richard Belzer called a furious Chase several times at 5 a.m.) The two apparently made up, and Chase was invited to Stern's wedding — but apparently gave a wildly inappropriate toast that only exacerbated Stern's dislike of him.

Who He Pissed Off: Will Ferrell and the cast of the 1996-1997 season
How: "When he was here," Tim Meadows says in Live from New York, "it was like just watching a car accident over and over again just watching him deal with people." According to Will Ferrell, Chase was "a little snobbish" and prone to screaming at people at that show's first meeting he told a female writer "maybe you could give me a handjob later," reportedly mortifying Lorne. "I don't know if he was on something or what," Ferrell said. "If he took too many back pills that day or something."

Who He Pissed Off: Bill Maher and NYPD Blue creator Stephen Bochco
How: Chase appeared on Politically Incorrect in 1997, alongside television producer Stephen Bocho, and insistently hijacked the conversation to talk about how television, and Bochco's work in particular, is "useless and worthless." The Paley Center has a good summary: "Shortly thereafter, he admits that he is not terribly familiar with Bochco's work. When Maher attempts to get the conversation back on track, Chase declares that he disapproves even of Maher's show. Bochco suggests that Chase leave the show, and Chase almost makes it out the door before Maher stops him and asks him to stay."

Who He Pissed Off: Kevin Smith
How: That same year, Chevy met with Kevin Smith to talk about relaunching the Fletch series. According to Smith, the meeting was a disaster: "At the lunch, Chevy went on to claim he invented every funny thing that ever happened in the history of not just comedy, but also the known world. You ever sat down with somebody who claimed responsibility for stuff he did AND didn't do? It's really off-putting." Chase later accused Smith of "lying" to him.

Who He Pissed Off: Comedian Rob Huebel
How: Huebel, who describes himself as "the biggest Chevy Chase fan in the world," approached Chevy backstage at UCB Theater to introduce himself, only to have Chevy slap him across the face "offensively hard." It was done as a joke ("in good humor," Chase told New York magazine), and Huebel says he didn't take offense, but it clearly left an impression on him and an onlooking Jason Mantzoukas.

The Roast

Who He Pissed Off: Actually, no one.
How: The 2002 Friars Club Roast of Chevy Chase, one of those interminable things broadcast on Comedy Central, may be the only thing Chevy's been involved with professionally where he didn't end up pissing anyone off. And yet we have to mention it here, if only because it's maybe the best, and saddest evidence of how few friends Chevy has left. Almost no one from the original Saturday Night Live showed up (Paul Shaffer, a member of the band, MCed), and the comedians who did show weren't exactly close friends of Chase, and were unbelievably cruel. (Not to mention unfunny.) I caught this on TV at the time without really having a sense of how widely-hated Chevy was by the end, there was literally no question that nobody liked him.


Who He Pissed Off: Dan Harmon
How: Show creator Harmon, himself reputedly a sensitive and vindictive prick, has been embroiled in a weirdly public feud with Chase almost since the start of the show, and it's not hard to see the uncomfortable parallels between Chevy himself and his character Pierce Hawthorne — an old, out-of-touch, self-aggrandizing bigot who alienates all of the people he works with. Their sniping turned into a full-on confrontation over the last week when Harmon, smarting from an on-set spat over a late script, gave a very public "fuck you" to Chase at a party in front of his wife and daughter and leaked a hilariously profane voicemail that Chevy had left for him. To be fair, Harmon's apologized, in a meandering Tumblr post: "I'm a selfish baby and a rude asshole and not a person to trust with your feelings." Meanwhile, a sort of poignant interview with the Huffington Post, Chase hints that he might leave the show soon, insisting that he wants a "much freer kind of performance thing" — which is more or less what he said about The Chevy Chase Show 20 years ago.

Chevy Chase Throws a Tantrum: Community Creator's 'Got Bad Writing, Shit, Stinko'

Looks like Chevy Chase and Community creator Dan Harmon are embroiled in a good ol&apos fashioned…

Who He Pissed Off: Dino Stamatopoulos and much of the Community cast.
How: Chevy "has a reputation for being a dick," Dino Stamatopoulos, who plays the character Star Burns, told Marc Maron on his podcast last year. "That reputation is earned." (Stamatopoulos nevertheless insists that he personally likes Chevy, and that all the actor needs "is a little respect," which he apparently doesn't get from the younger cast.) Update: Dino writes in:

Chevy mostly pissed me off when I was working on Conan back around ➔. I had been working hard all week on a very complex desk piece. It played the segment right before Chevy came out and it did okay. After Chevy was introduced, he sat down, and the first thing he said was, "Wow, Conan, that bit [referring to the desk piece] sure was. stupid."

Also just to clarify, I get along with Chevy because I barely work with him and don't have him constantly ruining whole days when I'm there, like he does with the regular cast members. I view him now as a confused old man who can't really hurt me in any way. I understand why the regulars on Community and the full time writers hating him. If he wasted my time as much as much as he wasted their time, Iɽ hate him, too.

Who He Pissed Off: Yvette Brown, Alison Brie, Megan Ganz and probably most of the show's female staff
How: No one has come out and said specifically "I hate Chevy Chase," but there are hints. On Watch What Happens Live, Yvette Brown didn't even have to think before naming Chevy Chase as the person sheɽ kick off Community if she had to choose one of them. asked by the Daily Beast's Jace Lacob about an uncomfortable rape joke Chevy made at a panel appearance by the cast, Brown and fellow cast member Alison Brie and writer Megan Ganz were diplomatic but not particularly warm. "His bits are from a different time," Ganz says. "A lot of crass comedy is accepted," Brie offers. "Some people don't know how to word it the right way." Brown agrees that some people don't "know their room. Maybe he was from a time when women weren't empowered enough to speak up. I'm glad that we're in a time now where if you are offended or upset by something someone says, you feel empowered to say, 'That's not right.'" (Chase doesn't seem to be helping things by telling the Huffington Post that the only two relatable characters are "the two white girls — the two pretty, young girls, Alison [Brie] and Gillian [Jacobs]" who are "probably more like people that we can all understand.")

[updated 4/5 with Rob Huebel, 4/6 with Howard Stern, Kevin Smith and Stephen Bochco]

Jefferson & Adams: Founding Frenemies

As Joseph Ellis wrote in his book Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson could be considered “the odd couple of the American Revolution.” They first met as delegates to the Continental Congress in 1775 the following year, Adams would personally select Jefferson to draft the Declaration of Independence. Profoundly different in physical appearance and demeanor—Jefferson was tall, elegant and philosophical, while Adams was short, stout and prone to vivid outbursts of emotion—the two men nevertheless became close friends.

The friendship grew stronger in the 1780s, when Adams and Jefferson served diplomatic missions to Europe. While living in England and France, both Adams and his wife, Abigail, consoled Jefferson after the loss of his wife, Martha, and grew to consider him almost a part of the family.

Things got more complicated, however, when both men returned to the United States, and the heated debate over the new nation’s government. As secretary of state in George Washington’s cabinet, Jefferson was driven by a fear of a powerful central authority and gravitated toward the new Republican Party. Adams, who as vice president was largely marginalized in Washington’s administration, favored a strong central government to ensure the new nation’s survival, and aligned himself with the Federalist Party.

Jefferson’s enduring support for the French Revolution𠅎ven after the execution of King Louis XVI and the dawn of the Reign of Terror𠅏urther soured his friendship with Adams. His anger over Washington’s policy of neutrality led Jefferson to resign from the cabinet at the end of 1793 and withdraw to Monticello, his Virginia estate. It was during this period, according to Mark Silk, that Adams took the opportunity to gossip about his former friend in letters to his sons Charles and John Quincy.

Silk, a professor of religion and director of the Leonard E. Greenberg Center for the Study of Religion in Public Life at Trinity College, writes in Smithsonian about two letters written by Adams in January 1794, soon after Jefferson’s return to Monticello. In the first, addressed to Charles, Adams wrote of Jefferson’s supposed retirement from public life, saying that when Washington died or resigned, his former friend expected to be “invited from his conversations with Egeria in the Groves” to take control of the government. In a similar reference the following day, he wrote to John Quincy of Jefferson being “summoned from the familiar society of Egeria” to take the reins of power.

At the time, Silk argues, 𠇌onversation” was a euphemism for sexual intercourse, while �miliar” was a synonym for “intimate.” He believes the references to Egeria were Adams’ sly way of referring to Sally Hemings, the slave woman whose longstanding relationship with Jefferson produced (according to DNA evidence) at least one and probably six children between 1790 and 1808. In the early mythology of early Roman history (as chronicled by Livy and Plutarch), Egeria was a divine nymph or goddess who became the lover of Numa, a man chosen by Roman senators as their king after the death of Romulus, Rome’s founder.

Numa was a widower (like Jefferson) and the more philosophical and intellectual successor to a military hero. Silk believes the classical reference, though overlooked by later historians and biographers, would have been clear at the time. A French writer had published a popular novel about Numa in 1786𠅊 year before Hemings, a half-sister of Jefferson’s late wife, accompanied Jefferson’s younger daughter, Mary, to Paris, where Jefferson was serving as a minister. Adams would certainly have known about the young, attractive slave girl in Jefferson’s household, as she and Mary stayed with the Adamses in London after their transatlantic voyage. If Silk’s theory is correct, it would suggest that the rumors of Jefferson’s liaison with Hemings would have been circulating𠅊t least among the political elite𠅋y 1794, long before they were first reported in the press.

True to Adams’ predictions, Jefferson wasted no time in seclusion, emerging after Washington stepped down in 1796 to run for president𠅊gainst his former friend. After Adams won a narrow victory, he approached Jefferson with the idea of joining forces in a sort of bipartisan administration, despite the opposition of his Federalist cabinet. Jefferson declined, deciding it would not serve him well as leader of the Republican opposition to be drawn into the policy-making process of the administration. His refusal caused a definitive break between the two men during Adams’ presidency. Jefferson and James Madison formed a powerful Republican alliance, while Adams largely ignored his cabinet and relied on Abigail and his family for advice.

The 1800 election still stands as one of the nastiest in history. Jefferson’s supporters accused Adams of having a “hideous hermaphroditical character,” while Adams’ camp called Jefferson 𠇊 mean-spirited, low-lived fellow.” Jefferson hired a sleazy journalist, James Callendar, to smear Adams in the press, including the (false) story that he wanted to start a war with France. On the day of Jefferson’s inauguration, Adams took the early stagecoach out of Washington to rejoin Abigail in Quincy, and was not present during the ceremony. They would not exchange another word for 12 years.

Meanwhile, after serving jail time under the Sedition Act for his libel of Adams, Callendar demanded a government post in return for his service. When Jefferson failed to come through, Callendar uncovered and published the first public claims about Jefferson and his slave mistress, dubbed 𠇍usky Sally,” in a series of newspaper articles in 1801. No denial came from the White House, and the story would follow Jefferson for the rest of his career.

A mutual friend and fellow signer of the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Rush, deserves credit for reigniting the Adams-Jefferson friendship. Around 1809, as Ellis related in 𠇏ounding Brothers,” Rush was simultaneously writing to Adams and Jefferson, suggesting to each man that the other was eager to resume the friendship. Rush told Adams he had dreamed about Adams writing to Jefferson, after which the two giants would renew their friendship through a correspondence. They would discuss their past disputes, and share their profound musings on the meaning of American independence. After that, in Rush’s dream, the two men “sunk into the grave nearly at the same time, full of years and rich in the gratitude and praises of their country.”

Amazingly, it played out almost just like that. On January 1, 1812, Adams sent a short note to Monticello. Over the next 14 years, he and Jefferson would exchange 158 letters, writing for posterity as much as for each other. Of the two, Adams wrote many more words, and was often the more confrontational and aggressive, while Jefferson maintained his characteristic philosophical calm. By the summer of 1813, the two men had regained a level of trust that allowed them to truly grapple with the two sides of the revolutionary legacy. That July, Adams wrote “You and I ought not to die before We have explained ourselves to each other.”

The famous correspondence touched on Adams’ vilification as a tyrant by Jefferson and his fellow Republicans, the unfairness of which Jefferson acknowledged. The two men also discussed the fallout of the French Revolution, the issue that had initially divided them back in the 1790s. In their later letters, Adams and Jefferson even anticipated the growing sectional tensions between North and South that would eventually result in the Civil War. However, true to the revolutionary generation’s shameful silence on the issue of slavery, they rarely touched on the taboo topic itself.


A chauffeur poses in the Pierce Arrow just outside of the White House garage in 1909.

A chauffeur poses in the White Motor Company Model M just outside of the White House garage in 1909.

President William Howard Taft’s daughter Helen returns to the Pierce Arrow landaulet after a shopping trip on F Street in Northwest Washington, D.C., in 1909.

Alice Roosevelt Longworth seated in the Taft Pierce Arrow landaulet in 1912. The chauffeur is Abe Long. The figure not facing the camera is likely President Theodore Roosevelt.

President William Howard Taft in the White House Pierce Arrow 66 A. P. Touring Car in 1912. This photograph was probably taken while the president was in Boston to address the Republican Club of Beverly, Massachusetts.

1912 model Baker Electric Special Victoria. This two-person automobile was used by First Lady Helen Herron Taft and four other first ladies. It is now in the collection of the Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan.

Collection of the Henry Ford Museum

Both newspapers and automobile club publications closely followed the new mode of presidential transportation. In 1909 the Washington Post published a feature on the subject, revealing that the huge steampowered car Taft’s chauffeur George Robinson drove was bought in the president’s native Ohio. The White Motor Company, a branch of the White Sewing Machine Company of Cleveland, provided for the chief of state its Model M, a seven-passenger, 40 horsepower touring car. “The United States coat of arms is artistically painted on each of the doors and the color scheme is a harmonious blend of subdued greens.” For First Lady Helen Herron Taft the government purchased a Pierce Arrow, manufactured in Buffalo, New York. Driven by Abe Long, another White House chauffeur, it was described as a “six cylinder 48 horsepower suburban car, the main color of which is blue, with the door panels a rich russet and a single narrow stripe of the same color following the lines of the molding. . . . Naturally a facsimile of the great seal of the United States is emblazoned on the doors of the car.” 3

In 1910 Taft became the first president to attend an auto show, this one held in Washington, D.C. He enjoyed the exhibits and praised the automobile industry for “making greater progress . . . than in any other mechanical art during the last fifteen years.” 4 On May 6, 1910, a group of motorists from Richmond, Virginia, participating in the Washington Post Endurance Run, came to the White House on their way to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Cross-country motoring was an early and adventurous hobby, and sponsored journeys tested the endurance of the automobile and driver as well as publicizing the rough road conditions. President Taft, sympathetic to the cause, noted: “I am a motorist myself and know what it means to travel over rough roads.” 5

The automobile industry had gained a dream spokesman the president of the United States. President Taft’s endorsement of the motor car as the official means of presidential transport created tremendous momentum for the automobile industry and accelerated the movement for improved roads. 6 In 1911, the American Association of Highway Improvement supported by agriculturalists, businessmen, highway officials, automobilists, and auto manufacturers convened its first major congress in Richmond, inviting President Taft to be the guest of honor and keynote speaker. Although unable to attend due to a severe cold, the president did send a warm message endorsing their work. He wrote, “The development of good roads is one of the most valuable assets to the country and, of great value to the public.” 7

In 2013, 10,076 people are killed due to drunk driving, a 55% drop in deaths since MADD&rsquos founding in 1980.

MADD releases Power of Youth, a new school-based program for high school teens to influence each other to not drink under 21 and never get in the car with a drinking driver.

MADD launches Power of Parents, a new research-based program designed for parents of high school students, to help parents have ongoing, intentional and potentially lifesaving conversations about alcohol with their teens.

MADD updates it&rsquos logo in 2011&hellip the organizations third registered logo in its history.

MADD announces a new partnership with the NFL in 2010 with a game-day program asking fans to designate a non-drinking driver. Starting with just two teams, today 14 teams participate generating hundreds of thousands of fans pledging to play the Most Valuable Position&mdashthe designated driver.

The Newseum&rsquos First Amendment Gallery puts each of the five freedoms in historical context and provides perspective on what they mean to us today.

One of those freedoms, the Freedom to Petition, includes MADD as the lead example of petitioning the government to change legislation. MADD has been a part of this permanent exhibit since the Newseum&rsquos grand opening in 2008.

When the Campaign to Eliminate Drunk Driving is unveiled in 2006, New Mexico is the only state that has passed an all-offender ignition interlock law. Today half of the country has laws requiring ignition interlocks for first-time convicted drunk drivers.

MADD begins integrating the term &ldquosurvivor&rdquo in its vocabulary, which can represent injury survivors as well as allow victims to self-identify what stage of the healing process they are in. As a result, MADD Victim Services releases a new tagline, Helping Survivor Survive. In addition, MADD launches a new toll-free 24-hour victim helpline 877.MADD.HELP.

The early 2000s were focused on the hard-fought battle to get .08 BAC passed in all 50 states. As a result of MADD&rsquos perseverance, persistence and heart for victims, .08 finally passes in all 50 states by 2004.

MADD releases its second registered logo in 2001.

President Bill Clinton signs Federal law lowering the legal drunk driving limit to .08% BAC, Oct. 23, 2000

During the second half of the 90s, MADD focuses on building underage drinking prevention efforts and programs. MADD convenes two National Youth Summits in 1996 and again in 2000 bringing youth from across the country to Washington, DC. The decade culminates with MADD adding the prevention of underage drinking as a stand-along mission prong in its revised mission statement: "To stop drunk driving, support the victims of this violent crime and prevent underage drinking."

MADD goes online at

In 1995, Zero Tolerance passes into Federal law making it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any measurable amount of alcohol. By 1998, Zero Tolerance is passed in all 50 states.

In 1993, Gene Siskel, Roger Ebert and Leeza Gibbons co-host &ldquoHollywood Gets MADD,&rdquo a 30-minute infomercial that explored the problem of drinking and driving and how Hollywood's attitude toward drunk driving, as reflected in its movies, has changed over the years.

This is MADD&rsquos first registered logo in 1992. That same year, MADD revises and simplifies its mission statement,
"To stop drunk driving and support the victims of this violent crime."

Sobriety checkpoints are upheld as constitutional by the Supreme Court in 1990.

MADD establishes Victim Impact Panels, providing victims a healing opportunity to share their story in hopes that it deters offenders from drinking and driving again.

In 1988, the nation experienced the worst drunk driving crash in US history when a drunk driver hits a school bus head on filled with mostly children on their way home from church outing. The bus burst into flames killing 24 children and 3 adults. 34 others were seriously injured.

Victim Advocate Training Institutes are introduced to train volunteer and staff victim advocates on how to appropriately provide supportive services to victims and survivors.

Project Red Ribbon, known today as Tie One On For Safety, launches in 1986. MADD&rsquos longest running public awareness campaign, the public is asked to tie a red ribbon to a visible place on their vehicle as a pledge to never drink and drive and to remind others to do the same. MADD distributes more than 300,000 red ribbons between Thanksgiving and New Year&rsquos Eve every year.

MADD's earliest known usage of "designated driver" is in 1986. MADD has since led the charge to popularize the phrase, making it a household term. Today MADD urges the public to plan ahead and designate a non-drinking driver if their plans include alcohol.

In the mid-80s an important term begins to emerge in MADD&rsquos vernacular, the word &ldquocrash.&rdquo MADD does not use the word &ldquoaccident&rdquo when referring to drunk or drugged driving, because it&rsquos a choice, a violent crime and 100% preventable. By 1997, the Department of Transportation announces it will remove the term &ldquoaccident&rdquo in all of its communication and asks the public to remove it from its vocabulary.

Video: Norma Phillips Thorworth

In July of 1984, MADD makes a conscious and deliberate decision to change its name from Mothers Against Drunk Drivers to Mothers Against Drunk Driving&hellip to signal that the organization is against the action, not the person.

With the name change came a mission change as well&hellip &ldquoTo provide grassroots leadership to create major social change in the attitude and behavior of Americans toward drunk driving."

A major milestone happened on July 17, 1984&hellip the 21 minimum drinking age is signed into Federal law. President Ronald Reagan, known for &ldquostates&rsquo rights&rdquo said in his remarks that day, &ldquothis problem is bigger than the individual States. It&rsquos a grave national problem, and it touches all our lives.&rdquo

In 1987, the US Supreme Court upholds the 21 law as constitutional. All states pass 21 into law by 1988.

The MADD National Office moves from California to Texas to be located in the middle of the country and near a good airport. At the office grand opening in Hurst of September 1983, then-Democratic House Majority Leader Jim Wright attended and announced his support of the 21 Minimum Drinking Age Act. Later the National Office moved to its current location in Irving, and this highway sign once hung at the exit off of SH 114.

In the spring of 1983, NBC aired a made-for-TV movie called &ldquoThe Candy Lightner Story,&rdquo which bolstered attention of the issue.

President Ronald Reagan created the Presidential Commission on Drunk Driving on April 14, 1982. MADD was a member of the Commission. That same year, a significant piece of legislation passed, The Howard-Barnes Alcohol Traffic Safety Law, which provided $125 million in incentive grants for states to pass .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) from .15, administrative license revocation and other drunk driving countermeasures.

In 1981 MADD exploded nationwide as volunteers picked up picket signs and marched in front of state capitols to get new drunk driving laws passed.

MADD holds its first candlelight vigil in California, which catches fire among chapters nationwide to honor victims. Culturally vigils have been and continue to be an important way to visually show the impact of drunk driving and provide victims an opportunity to gather and connect.

Candace Lightner worked tirelessly to change drunk driving laws in her home state and took that momentum to the national stage where MADD holds its first national press conference October 2, 1980 in Washington, DC.

Left to right: Candace Lightner, Rep. Michael Barnes (D-MD), unidentified woman, Cindi and Laura Lamb

The first mission statement: &ldquoTo aid the victims of crimes performed by individuals driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, to aid the families of such victims and to increase public awareness of the problem of drinking and drugged driving."

Cindi Lamb, from Maryland, joined Candace Lightner and other grieving mothers to rally against the crime of drunk driving. A year earlier, Cindi and her 5-month-old daughter, Laura, were hit head-on by a repeat drunk driver. Cindi was seriously injured, while Laura became the nation&rsquos youngest quadriplegic&mdashand the first face of injured victims, representing hundreds of thousands of others.

The feisty, blue-eyed girl who loved to dance in her electric wheelchair, died at age 6 from complications due to her extensive injuries.

Cari&rsquos mother, Candace Lightner, carried her daughter&rsquos photo with her as she worked tirelessly to change drunk driving laws in California to try and make sense of a senseless act and turn her pain into purpose.

To this day, MADD holds photos of victims and survivors to put a face on the problem and share stories behind the statistics.

13-year-old softball all-star Cari Lightner was killed May 3, 1980 in Fair Oaks, California. She and a friend were walking to a church carnival and at the same time, a three-time repeat offender, out of jail just two days from a 4th DUI arrest, was barreling down the road. He hit Cari from behind, throwing her out of her shoes 125 feet, then fled the scene but was later arrested and charged with her death.

In that moment, Cari became the first face of drunk driving victims. She also represents the many pedestrian victims killed or injured due to drunk driving.

This photo was taken just hours before she was killed.

Nearly 25,000 people are killed in alcohol-related crashes, 50% of all traffic deaths.

Watch the video: 055 - Search for speed under sail 1700-1855 by Howard I. Chapelle


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