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(SP-336: t. 226; 1. 105'10; b. 25'1; dr. 10'
(aft); s. 12 mph.; a. 2 1-pars.)
Spartan (SP-336), a tug built in 1912 by Skinner Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. at Baltimore, Md., was acquired by the Navy from H. & N.Y. Transportation Co., New York, during the late summer of 1917 and commissioned on 22 September 1917. For two years, Spartan served in the 3d Naval District as a minesweeper.
On 20 September 1919, she was returned to her owner, and her name was subsequently struck from the Navy list.
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Pre-Season friendly v Dunfermline Athletic – Supporters’ News
Following our successful trial against LTHV, we are delighted to welcome supporters [&hellip]
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Helot, a state-owned serf of the ancient Spartans. The ethnic origin of helots is uncertain, but they were probably the original inhabitants of Laconia (the area around the Spartan capital) who were reduced to servility after the conquest of their land by the numerically fewer Dorians. After the Spartan conquest of Messenia in the 8th century bce , the Messenians were also reduced to the status of helots.
The helots were in a sense state slaves, bound to the soil and assigned to individual Spartans to till their holdings their masters could neither free them nor sell them, and the helots had a limited right to accumulate property, after paying to their masters a fixed proportion of the produce of the holding. Owing to their own numerical inferiority, the Spartans were always preoccupied with the fear of a helot revolt. The ephors (Spartan magistrates) of each year on entering office declared war on the helots so that they might be murdered at any time without violating religious scruples. It was the responsibility of the Spartan secret police, the Krypteia, to patrol the Laconian countryside and put to death any supposedly dangerous helots. Sparta’s conservative foreign policy is often attributed to the fear of revolts by the helots. During wartime helots attended their masters on campaign and served as light-armed troops and sometimes also as rowers in the fleet. The Messenian helots were lost to Sparta when Epaminondas liberated Messenia circa 370, but the helot system continued in Laconia until the 2nd century bce .
This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.
- , a molecular modeling and computational chemistry application , an apple cultivar developed in 1926 , a geometric sans-serif typeface
- Spartan or Project Spartan, the code name of the Microsoft Edge web browser
- Spartan Alphabet, in fingerspelling
- The Spartans Drum and Bugle Corps, an Open Class drum and bugle corps from Nashua, New Hampshire , a company based in Spartanburg, South Carolina, that was purchased by Medi Spartan, a family of integrated circuits (SPARTAN) Flight Controller, for the International Space Station
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IMPORTANT: To prevent ground loop error between a grounded PC and a grounded input signal, Acromag strongly recommends use of a USB isolator like Acromag’s USB-Isolator when configuring a SP330 Series transmitter.
USB Connector: USB Mini-B type socket, 5-pin. 5.0 meters cable length max. No driver required.
USB Data Rate: 12Mbps. USB v1.1 and 2.0 compatible
USB Transient Protection: Transient voltage suppression on power and data lines
Input: 4 to 20mA, medium filter
Output: 4 to 20mA
Input Ranges and Accuracy:
Range Accuracy* (typical)
±599mV ±0.05% of span
0 to 500mV ±0.05% of span
±20mA ±0.05% of span
0 to 20mA ±0.05% of span
4 to 20mA ±0.05% of span
0 to 11.17mA (for AC sensor) ±0.05% of span
±1mA ±0.05% of span
*Error includes the effects of repeatability, terminal point conformity, and linearization.
Ambient Temperature Effect: Better than ±80ppm/°C (±0.008%/°C)
Zero: 0 to 95% of range, typical
Full Scale: 5 to 100% of full scale range, typical
Input Over-Voltage Protection: Bipolar Transient Voltage Suppressers (TVS), 5.6V clamp level typical.
Bipolar input: 1 part in 50000 (±25000)
Unipolar input: 1 part in 25000
Current input: 24.9 ohms
Voltage input: 15M ohms
Input Filter: Selectable digital filtering settings (none, low, medium, high)
Noise Rejection (with High Filter):
Normal mode @ 60Hz: >80dB
Common mode @ 60Hz: >139dB
Output (Two Signals, Active)
Range Over-Range Resolution
±10V ±11V 1 part in 59577
±5V ±5.5V 1 part in 59577
0 to 10V –0 to +11V 1 part in 59577
0 to 5V –0 to +5.5V 1 part in 59577
0 to 20mA 0 to 24mA 1 part in 59577
4 to 20mA 0 to 24mA 1 part in 43689
Voltage output: 1K ohms minimum
Current output: 0-525 ohms for 21mA
Output Response Time (for step input change)
Time to reach 98% of final output value (typical):
Filter: ±0.5V Input Range ±20mA Input Range
None 28 milliseconds 10 milliseconds
Low 34 milliseconds 34 milliseconds
Medium 115 milliseconds 136 milliseconds
High 1060 milliseconds 1168 milliseconds
Output Ripple: Less than ±0.1% of output span
Operating temperature: -40 to 75°C (-40° to 167°F)
Storage temperature: -40 to 85°C (-40 to 185°F)
Relative humidity: 5 to 95% non-condensing
Power Requirement: 6-32V DC external supply, 1.5W max
Isolation: 1500V AC peak. 250V AC (354V DC) continuous between input, output, and power circuits.
Shock and Vibration Immunity:
Vibration: 4g, per IEC 60068-2-64
Shock: 25g, per IEC 60068-2-27
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Compliance:
Radiated Emissions: BS EN 61000-6-4, CISPR 16
RFI: BS EN 61000-6-2, IEC 61000-4-3
Conducted RFI: BS EN 61000-6-2, IEC 61000-4-6
ESD: BS EN 61000-6-2, IEC 61000-4-2
EFT: BS EN 61000-6-2, IEC 61000-4-4
Surge Immunity: BS EN 61000-6-2, IEC 61000-4-5
CE compliant. Designed for UL/cUL Class I Division 2 Groups ABCD, ATEX / IECEx Zone 2.
Ex II 3 G Ex nA IIC T4 Gc -40°C ≤ Ta ≤ +80°C
General: General-purpose enclosure designed for mounting on 35mm “T-type” DIN rail.
Case Material: Self-extinguishing polyamide, UL94 V-0 rated, color light gray. General-purpose NEMA Type 1 enclosure.
I/O Connectors: Removable plug-in terminal blocks rated for 12A/250V AWG #26-12, stranded or solid copper wire.
Dimensions: 17.5 x 114.5 x 99.0 mm (0.69 x 4.51 x 3.90 inches)
Shipping Weight: 0.22 kg (0.5 pounds) packed
The Ionian or Decelean War
Sparta recommenced war in 414 BC. Now Sparta had a strong army and navy. Athens had lost all its best sailors and finances were wearing. The Spartan on King Agis orders occupied Decelea so that Athens could not access their silver mines. The Athenian empire started to fall apart due to attack after attack. Persia entered the war to support Sparta. The Athenian navy called back Alcibiades, who had fled to Sparta, to help them.
The food sources of Sicily and Egypt were under the control of Sparta and Egypt. Athens only support was in form of Crimea. The Athenians under Thrasybulus and Thrasylus defeated the Spartans at Cynossema. Athens also enjoyed a naval victory over Persia at Cyzicus at the Sea of Marmora.
Sparta saw a new leadership in the form of Lysander who along with Persian leader Cyrus started to builds a new armada. Alcibiades divided his forces and left one at Notium. But Lysander attacked Notium and Alcibiades could not do anything upon returning as the damage had been done. He was called back to Athens, probably for his trial, and he therefore fled to Hellespont.
Athens sailed to Aegospotami in Hellespont. Lysander was called back and he was based at the harbor of Abydos, opposite Aegospotami. Lysander captured the entire Athenian fleet and smashed and bringing the war to an end in just one attack. Lysander blocked Athens through its naval power, while the army attacked on land. With food supply closed, Athens surrendered on Spartan terms.
After the war ended, the 'Thirty Tyrants' ruled Athens for a short period of time. Democracy was reinitiated in 403 BC. Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War was somewhat diluted because of their defeat in Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. Later on when Philip II of Macedon conquered all of Greece, Sparta's empire and power was diminished and ultimately destroyed.
The Maccabees/Hasmoneans: History & Overview
The death of Alexander the Great of Greece in 323 BCE led to the breakup of the Greek empire as three of his generals fought for supremacy and divided the Middle East among themselves. Ptolemy secured control of Egypt and the Land of Israel. Seleucus grabbed Syria and Asia Minor, and Antigonus took Greece.
The Land of Israel was thus sandwiched between two of the rivals and, for the next 125 years, Seleucids and Ptolemies battled for this prize. The former finally won in 198 B.C. when Antiochus III defeated the Egyptians and incorporated Judea into his empire. Initially, he continued to allow the Jews autonomy, but after a stinging defeat at the hands of the Romans he began a program of Hellenization that threatened to force the Jews to abandon their monotheism for the Greeks' paganism. Antiochus backed down in the face of Jewish opposition to his effort to introduce idols in their temples, but his son, Antiochus IV, who inherited the throne in 176 B.C. resumed his father's original policy without excepting the Jews. A brief Jewish rebellion only hardened his views and led him to outlaw central tenets of Judaism such as the Sabbath and circumcision, and defile the holy Temple by erecting an altar to the god Zeus, allowing the sacrifice of pigs, and opening the shrine to non-Jews.
The Jewish Hammer
Though many Jews had been seduced by the virtues of Hellenism, the extreme measures adopted by Antiochus helped unite the people. When a Greek official tried to force a priest named Mattathias to make a sacrifice to a pagan god, the Jew murdered the man. Predictably, Antiochus began reprisals, but in 167 BCE the Jews rose up behind Mattathias and his five sons and fought for their liberation.
The family of Mattathias became known as the Maccabees, from the Hebrew word for "hammer," because they were said to strike hammer blows against their enemies. Jews refer to the Maccabees, but the family is more commonly known as the Hasmoneans.
Like other rulers before him, Antiochus underestimated the will and strength of his Jewish adversaries and sent a small force to put down the rebellion. When that was annihilated, he led a more powerful army into battle only to be defeated. In 164 BCE, Jerusalem was recaptured by the Maccabees and the Temple purified, an event that gave birth to the holiday of Chanukah.
Jews Regain Their Independence
It took more than two decades of fighting before the Maccabees forced the Seleucids to retreat from the Land of Israel. By this time Antiochus had died and his successor agreed to the Jews' demand for independence. In the year 142 BCE, after more than 500 years of subjugation, the Jews were again masters of their own fate.
When Mattathias died, the revolt was led by his son Judas, or Judah Maccabee, as he is often called. By the end of the war, Simon was the only one of the five sons of Mattathias to survive and he ushered in an 80-year period of Jewish independence in Judea, as the Land of Israel was now called. The kingdom regained boundaries not far short of Solomon's realm and Jewish life flourished.
The Hasmoneans claimed not only the throne of Judah, but also the post of High Priest. This assertion of religious authority conflicted with the tradition of the priests coming from the descendants of Moses' brother Aaron and the tribe of Levi.
It did not take long for rival factions to develop and threaten the unity of the kingdom. Ultimately, internal divisions and the appearance of yet another imperial power were to put an end to Jewish independence in the Land of Israel for nearly two centuries.
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In the fossil record, teeth are often all that remains of a fossil organism. Dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) is a common proxy for diet using dental wear features at the μm-scale, enabling comparative and quantitative assessments of various feeding traits in extant and extinct species. In extinct species, original diet-related dental wear features may be overprinted by post-mortem alteration including fluvial transport. Here we experimentally investigate the effects of mechanical alteration on diet-related 3D enamel surface texture (3DST) patterns of different mammal teeth. Post canine teeth of Equus sp., Capreolus capreolus and Otomys sp. are tumbled in sediment-water suspensions using three different grain size fractions of sand. The 3DST of the enamel surfaces are measured prior to and after each tumbling interval and characterised using ISO normed surface texture and SSFA parameters. In all species, we find several parameters to be almost unaffected by tumbling (stable parameters), while other parameters show inconsistent-directional shifts (unstable parameters). For Otomys, all three sediment grain size fractions result in abrasion of peaks and a reduction of overall surface roughness. For Equus, tumbling results in visible abrasive changes in the original wear patterns and the introduction of new wear features. Capreolus capreolus shows high variability in surface texture patterns prior to and after the experiment, hence we see ambiguous trends for changes in parameter values. However, even after 336 h of tumbling the browsing C. capreolus can still be distinguished from the grazing Equus sp.
Thus, biostratinomy may potentially modify diet-related 3DST causing non-systematic bias via mechanical abrasion, which is related to sediment grain size, duration of transport and geometry of teeth. However, the original diet-related 3DST is still preserved and a more prominent characteristic in DMT than the experimentally induced diagenetic alteration.
We thank LIPI (Indonesian Institute of Sciences), RISTEK (Ministry of State for Research and Technology, Indonesia) and the Indonesian Department of Forestry for providing relevant permits. The field work in Indonesia would not have been possible without the generous hospitality and help of many local people, and we thank all of them very warmly. Michi Schrödl (Munich) gave inspiration to use numbers as species epithets. We are grateful to Lyubomir Penev (Sofia) for his constant support during the publication of this study. We thank the German Research Foundation DFG (RI 1817/1-1, 3-1, 3-3) for financial support.