Philip I DD- 76 - History

Philip I DD- 76 - History


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I Philip

(DD-76: dp. 1,090; 1. 314'4"; b. 30'6"; dr. 8'8"; s. 35 k.;
cpl. 134; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt. cl. Wickes)

The first Philip (DD-76) wa laid down by the Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me., 1 September 1917; launched 25 July 1918; sponsored by Mrs. Barrett P. Philip; and commissioned at the Boston Navy Yard 24 August 1918, Lt. Comdr. John F. Cox in command.

After being fitted out at Boston, Philip reported to Commander Squadron Two, Cruiser Force, 1 September 1918, to escort convoy HX-47 across the Atlantic, returning from Bunerana, Ireland, under orders of Commander, U.S. Destroyer Forces operating in European waters. She wa flagship of Submarine Hunting Group stationed at the Coast Guard Station, Cold Spring, Cape May, N.J. 28 September-11 October. She steamed to Europe with convoy HX-54 which sailed 27 October but returned to New York, 20 November.

Philip supported the trans-Atlantic flight of the NC-1, NC3, and NC-4, 11-19 May 1919. With other fleet units, she had a part in Army experimental firing at Fort Haneoek, N.Y. She then had orders to duty with Squadron 4, Destroyer Force Pacific Fleet, and reported at San Diego Destroyer Base 2 August. During the next month she cruised to Pearl Harbor T.H., and thereafter took part in division maneuvers, fleet movements and tactical exercises, eruising the west coast of the United States, South Ameriea, and Canal Zone, having special duty as assigned until 29 May 1922 when Philip was placed Ollt of commission.

When recommissioned 25 February 1930, after her overhaul and reconditioning, Philip was attached to Destroyer Squadrons, Battle Fleet, and conducted maneuvers and gunnery praetiee for the Reserve Force in the San Diego area. On 3 November she arrived at Corinto, Nicaragua enroute to the East Coast to join the Training Squadron, arriving New York Navy Yard 6 December. For the instruction of NROTC classes in the year 1931, she made many departures from Staten Island for the New England eoa t, Bermuda operating area,

and Naval Operating Base, Hampton Roads, Tangier Sound and Quantico, Va., before returning to New York. On 22 December she departed New York to join the Speeial Service Squadron which operated in the vicinity of Panama, Nicaragua, and El Salvador for the protection of American interests. Upon being detached Philip entered Mare Island Navy Yard, and from 9 May to 30 July 1932 operated in reduced commission with Destroyer Squadron 20, Rotating Reserve.

At her base in San Diego, from 18 August, Philip operated with Destroyer Division 6, Squadron 2, Battle Fleet, engaging in intensive division training, taeties and torpedo praetiee, at times operating with Aireraft Battle Force. From December 1933 to July 1934 she was in reduced status as before, later serving successively with Submarine Division 12 and with Cruisers Seouting Poree, and with other destroyer divisions.

In July-August 1934 Philip visited Alaskan ports, and made preparations for the Presidential Fleet Review held at San Diego in September-October 1935. Among her many duties, Philip annually participated in fleet problems, engaged in squadron and fleet taeties, acting at times as plane guard for carriers.

She decommissioned at Destroyer Base, San Diego, 2 April 1937, and recommissioned 30 September 1939 for duty with Division 64, Atlantic Squadron, which operated on neutrality patrol in the vicinity of Key West, Fla. She arrived there 11 December, and early the next year as a unit of the Antilles Detsehment, she visited Duteh Indies and Venezuelan ports as well as Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, St. Eustatius, Dry Tortugas, San Juan, P.R., St. Thomas, V.I., Culebra Island, and acted as submarine escort to the Canal Zone.

Departing Key West for New York Navy Yard 23 July 1940, she was overhauled and following trials arrived at Newport, R.I., enroute to Halifax, Nova Seotia. There she was decommissioned 23 October 1940 and turned over to British authorities in the ships for bases exchange, and renamed Lancaster in the Royal Navy. Her name was struck from the Navy List 8 January 1941. She served as a minelayer and convoy escort in the Royal Navy during World War II, and was reduced to reserve in July 1945.


Chiếc tàu chiến đầu tiên của Hải quân Mỹ mang cái tên USS Philip được đặt lườn tại xưởng tàu của hãng Bath Iron Works ở Bath, Maine vào ngày 1 tháng 9 năm 1917. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 25 tháng 7 năm 1918, được đỡ đầu bởi Bà Barrett P. Philip, và được đưa ra hoạt động tại Xưởng hải quân Boston vào ngày 24 tháng 8 năm 1918 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân John F. Cox.

Hải quân Hoa Kỳ Sửa đổi

Sau khi được trang bị hoàn thiện tại Boston, Philip được điều về Hải đội 2 thuộc Lực lượng Tuần dương vào ngày 1 tháng 9 năm 1918 để hộ tống đoàn tàu vận tải HX–47 vượt Đại Tây Dương. Nó quay trở về từ Buncrana, Ireland theo chỉ thị của Tư lệnh Lực lượng Khu trục hoạt động tại vùng biển Châu Âu. Nó trở thành soái hạm của Đội săn tàu ngầm đặt căn cứ tại Trạm tuần duyên Cold Spring, Cape May, New Jersey, từ ngày 28 tháng 9 đến ngày 11 tháng 10, rồi lên đường đi sang châu Âu cùng với đoàn tàu vận tải HX–54 khởi hành vào ngày 27 tháng 10 và quay trở về New York vào ngày 20 tháng 11.

Philip đã hỗ trợ cho các chuyến bay vượt Đại Tây Dương NC-1, NC-3 và NC-4 từ ngày 11 đến ngày 19 tháng 5 năm 1919. Cùng với các đơn vị hạm đội khác, nó tham gia cuộc thử nghiệm tác xạ của Lục quân tại Fort Hancock, New York. Sau đó nó được điều động sang Hải đội 4 của Lực lượng Khu trục thuộc Hạm đội Thái Bình Dương, và đã đi đến căn cứ khu trục San Diego vào ngày2 tháng 8. Trong tháng tiếp theo, nó lên đường đi Trân Châu Cảng tham gia các cuộc tập trận, cơ động hạm đội và thực hành chiến thuật. Nó hoạt động dọc theo bờ Tây Hoa Kỳ, Nam Mỹ và vùng kênh đào Panama cho đến ngày 29 tháng 5 năm 1922, khi Philip được cho ngừng hoạt động và đưa về lực lượng dự bị.

Khi được cho hoạt động trở lại vào ngày 25 tháng 2 năm 1930, Philip được đại tu và nâng cấp trước khi được điều động về Hải đội Khu trục thuộc Hạm đội Chiến trận. Nó tiến hành cơ động và thực hành tác xạ cùng lực lượng dự bị tại khu vực thực tập San Diego. Vào ngày 3 tháng 11, nó đi đến Corinto, Nicaragua trên đường đi sang vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ gia nhập Hải đội Huấn luyện, đi đến Xưởng hải quân New York vào ngày 6 tháng 12. Trong năm 1931, nó thực hiện nhiều chuyến đi từ đảo Staten đến bờ biển New England, khu vực hoạt động Bermuda và Căn cứ Hoạt động Hải quân Hampton Roads, Tangier Sound và Quantico, Virginia trước khi quay trở về New York. Ngày 22 tháng 12, nó rời New York gia nhập Hải đội Đặc vụ hoạt động tại khu vực phụ cận Panama, Nicaragua và El Salvador để bảo vệ quyền lợi của Hoa Kỳ. Sau khi được cho tách ra, Philip đi vào Xưởng hải quân Mare Island, và từ ngày 9 tháng 5 đến ngày 30 tháng 7 năm 1932 nó hoạt động với biên chế cắt giảm cùng với Hải đội Khu trục 20 thuộc Lực lượng Dự bị Luân phiên.

Từ căn cứ của nó ở San Diego, từ ngày 18 tháng 8, Philip hoạt động cùng với Đội khu trục 6 thuộc Hải đội 2 của Hạm đội Chiến trận, tham gia các cuộc huấn luyện hải đội, chiến thuật và thực hành ngư lôi, đôi khi cùng với Lực lượng Chiến trận Không lực. Từ tháng 12 năm 1933 đến tháng 7 năm 1934 nó lại hoạt động với biên chế cắt giảm như trước đây, rồi phục vụ cùng với Đội tàu ngầm 12 và với Lực lượng Tuần dương Tuần tiễu cũng như cùng với các đội tàu khu trục khác. Trong tháng 7–tháng 8 năm 1934, Philip viếng thăm các cảng Alaska và chuẩn bị cho cuộc Duyệt binh Hạm đội Tổng thống tổ chức tại San Diego vào tháng 9-tháng 10 năm 1935. Trong số nhiều nhiệm vụ được giao, nó tham gia các cuộc tập trận Vấn đề Hạm đội hàng năm, huấn luyện chiến thuật hải đội và hạm đội, thỉnh thoảng hoạt động như tàu hộ tống phòng không cho tàu sân bay.

Philip được cho xuất biên chế tại Căn cứ Khu trục San Diego vào ngày 2 tháng 4 năm 1937, nhưng lại nhập biên chế trở lại vào ngày 30 tháng 9 năm 1939 để hoạt động cùng Đội khu trục 64 thuộc Hải đội Đại Tây Dương, và hoạt động Tuần tra Trung lập tại khu vực phụ cận Key West, Florida. Nó đến nơi vào ngày 11 tháng 12, và vào đầu năm sau là một đơn vị thuộc Phân đội Antilles. Nó đã viếng thăm các cảng Tây Ấn và Venezuela cũng như là vịnh Guantanamo, Cuba, St. Eustatius, Dry Tortugas, San Juan, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, đảo Culebra, và đã hoạt động như tàu hộ tống chống tàu ngầm đến khu vực kênh đào Panama.

Hải quân Hoàng gia Anh Sửa đổi

Rời Key West ngày 23 tháng 7 năm 1940 để đi đến Xưởng hải quân New York, Philip được đại tu rồi cho chạy thử máy trước khi đi đến Newport, Rhode Island trên đường đi đến Halifax, Nova Scotia. Tại đây nó được xuất biên chế vào ngày 23 tháng 10 năm 1940 và được chuyển sang quyền sở hữu của Anh theo Thỏa thuận đổi tàu khu trục lấy căn cứ, và đổi tên thành HMS Lancaster trong phục vụ cùng Hải quân Hoàng gia Anh. Philip được rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân ngày 8 tháng 1 năm 1941.

Lancaster đã phục vụ như một tàu rải mìn và tàu hộ tống vận tải cho Hải quân Hoàng gia trong suốt Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai. Nó được cải biến cho nhiệm vụ hộ tống tàu buôn, khi nó được tháo dỡ ba trong số các khẩu pháo 4 in (100 mm)/50 caliber và một trong số các bệ ống phóng ngư lôi ba nòng nhằm giảm bớt trọng lượng bên trên, đồng thời bổ sung vũ khí chống tàu ngầm gồm mìn sâu và súng cối nhiều nòng chống tàu ngầm (Hedgehog). [2] Lancaster được đưa về lực lượng dự bị vào tháng 7 năm 1945.


Explaining Why The Queen Made Philip A Prince In 1957

Netflix's historical drama The Crown largely focuses on the life of Queen Elizabeth, but her story can't be properly told without the inclusion of her husband, Prince Philip. In The Crown Season 2, the Queen’s husband is given a new title, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. While the Queen has never explicitly revealed the reason why Philip was made a prince the Netflix show definitely offers some theories.

In the Netflix show, Elizabeth's husband is often portrayed as uncomfortable with the power imbalance between himself and the Queen, which perhaps isn't surprising given gender norms at that time together with his own royal roots. When Philip married Elizabeth in 1947, he was given the title of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. In order for the couple to marry, Philip was required to renounce his existing princely titles, which he held as a prince of both Greece and Denmark. However, a decade after they wed and five years into her role as Queen, Elizabeth made Philip a prince in a 1957 coronation — specifically Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. "The Queen has been pleased to declare her will and pleasure that His 'Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh shall henceforth be known as His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh," the palace said in a statement on Feb. 22, 1957, thus elevating Philip to the status he had abandoned years before.

The exact reasons for this change are unclear, but it is possible Elizabeth may have wanted to ease some of the frustration allegedly felt by Philip when she did not take his surname, Mountbatten, for her own name and that of her children after ascending to the throne. The History Channel describes that conflict as an "embarrassing battle" which Philip eventually lost, as viewers of The Crown's first season will remember. And the show certainly seems to suggest that his pride played a role in his eventual crowning.

"I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his children," Philip said, according to a biography of Elizabeth by Sally Bedell Smith and reported by Vanity Fair. "I’m nothing but a bloody amoeba." Another point of contention in the dramatisation provided by The Crown is the fact that Elizabeth requests Philip kneels before her at her coronation — a suggestion he loathes. She may be the Queen, but she was also a woman in the 1950s, and the gendered inversion is portrayed as a difficult pill for Philip to swallow.

However, in real life, it seems that the pair have managed to find a routine that's kept their marriage intact for all these years. "Prince Philip is the only man in the world who treats the queen simply as another human being," Queen Elizabeth's former private secretary Lord Charteris, told Vanity Fair. "He’s the only man who can. Strange as it may seem, I believe she values that."

Philip’s own backstory is addressed in “Paterfamilias,” episode nine of the second season of The Crown. As reported by Vanity Fair, Philip was actually born with more royal blood than Elizabeth was. Born in 1921 on the isle of Corfu, his parents were Princess Alice of Battenberg — great-granddaughter of the U.K.'s Queen Victoria — and Prince Andrew of Greece. He spent only a year in Greece as a child before the country’s entire royal family was expelled during a coup, leading to a nomadic childhood that was beset by tragedy, including his mother's nervous breakdown, the separation of his parents, and his sister's tragic passing when he was just 16.

After his parents' split, Philip was shuffled between boarding school and different relative's homes, maintaining a scarce relationship with his mostly-absent father, the Telegraph reports. He finally appears to have found stability when he joined the British Royal Navy, which he served in from 1939 to 1953, fighting against German forces that included two of his brothers-in-law. He left the Navy in 1951, beginning his role as consort when the Queen ascended to the throne upon the passing of her father on 6 February, 1952.


The Queen and Prince Philip: their love story, in quotes

It was a 72-year marriage that has supported the Queen through her lifetime of public duty. We look back at the respect the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh had for each other, in their own words and in the words of others.

The Queen on Prince Philip

‘How good he is, Crawfie. How high he can jump.’ – To her nanny about Philip as she watched him jump over the tennis nets at Dartmouth College in 1939.

"If I am asked what I think about family life after 25 years of marriage, I can answer with equal simplicity and conviction, I am for it." The Queen's Silver Wedding speech at the Guildhall, November 1972.

"All too often, I fear, Prince Philip has had to listen to me speaking. Frequently we have discussed my intended speech beforehand and, as you will imagine, his views have been expressed in a forthright manner.

"He has, quite simply, been my strength and stay all these years, and I, and his whole family, and this and many other countries, owe him a debt greater than he would ever claim, or we shall ever know." The Queen's Golden Wedding Anniversary speech at Banqueting House, London, November 1997.

"During these years as your Queen, the support of my family has, across the generations, been beyond measure. Prince Philip is, I believe, well-known for declining compliments of any kind. But throughout he has been a constant strength and guide." The Queen's Diamond Jubilee address to Parliament at Westminster Hall, March 2012.

"I take this opportunity to mention the strength I draw from my own family. The Duke of Edinburgh has made an invaluable contribution to my life over these past fifty years, as he has to so many charities and organisations with which he has been involved." The Queen's Golden Jubilee speech at the Guildhall, June 2002.

"Reflecting on these events makes me grateful for the blessings of home and family, and in particular for 70 years of marriage. I don't know that anyone had invented the term platinum' for a 70th wedding anniversary when I was born. You weren't expected to be around that long. Even Prince Philip has decided it's time to slow down a little – having, as he economically put it, 'done his bit'. But I know his support and unique sense of humor will remain as strong as ever, as we enjoy spending time this Christmas with our family and look forward to welcoming new members into it next year." The Queen's Christmas message, 2017

Prince Philip on the Queen

"I think the main lesson we have learnt is that tolerance is the one essential ingredient in any happy marriage. You can take it from me, the Queen has the quality of tolerance in abundance." During a toast to the Queen at a lunch celebrating their golden wedding anniversary, November 1997.

"To have been spared in the war and seen victory, to have been given the chance to rest and to re-adjust myself, to have fallen in love completely and unreservedly, makes all one's personal and even the world's troubles seem small and petty." In a letter written to Princess Elizabeth circa 1946, according to Philip Eade, author of Young Prince Philip: His Turbulent Early Life.

Their Family and Friends

"Together, they are invincible." Princess Eugenie

"Prince Philip is the only man in the world who treats the Queen simply as another human being. I think she values that." The Queen’s former private secretary Lord Charteris.

‘He makes her laugh because some of the things he says and does and the way he looks at life is obviously slightly different than her, so together they’re a great couple.’ – Prince William on his grandparents in 2012.

“In the world that they were in, it was almost back to front. The Queen was taking on her role in a man’s world. The Duke of Edinburgh was taking on the role of consort as a very successful naval commander – and would have been an even bigger one. Yet both of them carved their own paths and have done that ever since, to brilliant standards. Together, they’re a very good team.” Prince William, speaking at the Diamond Jubilee

“Regardless of whether my grandfather seems to be doing his own thing, sort of wandering off like a fish down the river, the fact that he’s there – personally, I don’t think that she could do it without him, especially when they’re both at this age.” Prince Harry, speaking at the Diamond Jubilee


USS Lea (DD-118)

USS Lea (DD-118) was a Wickes class destroyer that saw service very late in the First World War, before operating on convoy escort duty in the Atlantic for most of the Second World War.

The Lea was named after Edward Lea, a US Naval Officer who was mortally wounded when the Confederates recaptured Galveston in January 1863. His father, who was serving in the Confederate Army, was present when he died.

The Lea was laid down at William Cramp & Sons of Philadelphia on 18 September 1918, launched on 29 April 1918 and commissioned on 2 October 1918.

Her first commander was Worth Bagley, commander of USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) when she was sunk by a German U-boat near Brest on 6 December 1917. After his return to the United States Bagley was chosen as the first commander of the Lea, and was in command when she was commissioned on 2 October 1918. In January 1919 Bagley left the ship to become the American port officer at Rotterdam.

Anyone who served on her between 5 October and 6 November 1918 qualified for the First World War Victory Medal, presumably because her shakedown cruise took her into the Atlantic war zone.

In 1919 the Lea served in the Atlantic as part of DesRon 19, and was one of the destroyers attached to the US Naval Forces in France.

In 1920 the Lea transferred to the Pacific Fleet. She was decommissioned at San Diego on 22 June 1922 (along with the rest of Destroyer Division Eleven - Greer, Elliot, Tarbell, Yarnell and Upshur - the menu from the division's decommissioning dinner still survives in the archives.)

The Lea was recommissioned on 1 May 1930, and again served with the Pacific Fleet. In 1934 she took part in Fleet Problem XV, a three part exercise based around the Panama Canal. She was decommissioned for a second time on 7 April 1939.

The Lea was commissioned for a third time on 30 September 1939, with Lt. Comdr F.W. Slaven in command. By November 1939 she was the flagship of DesRon 32, part of the neutrality patrol that operated in the western Atlantic.

In July 1941 she helped escort the transports that carried marines to Iceland, where on 8 July 1941 they replaced British troops who had occupied the island to prevent the Germans seizing it for use as a U-boat base.

On 30 August 1941, before the official US entry into the war, she was escorting the oiler Salinas on a return voyage to the United States, when she was hit by torpedoes. The Salinas remained afloat, and the Lea helped escort her to safety in the United States.

Anyone who served on her during four periods between 26 June and 7 December 1941 qualified for the American Defense Service Medal.

After the American entry into the Second World War in December 1941 the Lea was allocated to convoy escort duties, serving in the North Atlantic, Caribbean and along the eastern seaboard.

In February 1942 she rescued the survivors of the Russian merchantman Dvinoles, which had been abandoned after a collision.

On 24 February the Lea and her fellow escorts were engaged in a day long battle with submarines attempting to attack Convoy ON 67, heading from Iceland to Newfoundland.

On 3-4 March 1942 the Lea and the Nicholson (DD-442) escorted the American Legion (AP-35) from Nova Scotia to the Boston Navy Yard after engineering problems meant that the American Legion had to abandon her planned voyage across the Atlantic carrying staff for the new destroyer base being built at Londonderry.

On 25 March 1942 the Lea left Norfolk heading for Iceland, escorting the oiler Winooski II (AO-38) and the Delta (AK-29), arriving on 1 April 1942.

On 28 August 1942 the Canadian corvette HMCS Oakville and PBY Catalinas from VP-92 sank U-94. The Oakville and the Lea picked up survivors from the U-boat.

In February 1943 the US navy formed an anti-submarine hunter-killer group based around the escort carrier USS Bogue (CVE-9). Her first three trans-Atlantic crossings came without any victories, but that would soon change. The Lea joined the group for its fourth crossing, which lasted from 22 April-30 May 1943. This time the group found a wolf pack attempting to attack a convoy. On 21-22 May the group carried out six attacks on submarines, and on 22 May the Bogue's aircraft sank U-569. The group was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for their success in defending the convoy.

Bogue (CVE-9), Lea, Greene (DD-266), Belknap (DD-251), Osmond Ingram (DD-255), George E. Badger (DD-196) and Composite Squadron Nine (VC-9) from the Bogue all qualified for the citation, which covered the period from 20 April to 20 June 1943.

On 31 December 1943, fives days out from New York, the Lea was rammed by a merchantman that was part of a convoy she was escorting. She had to be towed to Bermuda, and then on to Boston for full repairs, which weren't completed until 28 June 1944. This ended her time as a fully active warship, and for the rest of the war she was used for a mix of training and coastal convoy duties. After her repairs were completed she was based at Newport, where she was used as a target ship for torpedo planes, and to escort aircraft carriers during flight training. On 31 October-1 November she escorted the escort carrier Wake Island (CVE-65) from Quonset, Rhode Island, to Norfolk, Virginia.

In January-June 1945 she performed the same role in the waters off Florida. On 14 June 1945 she moved to Philadelphia, and on 20 July 1945 she was decommissioned. She was struck off the Navy Register on 13 August and sold for scrap on 30 November 1945.

The Lea earned three battle stars during the Second World War, for escorting Convoy TAG-18, escorting Convoy ON-67, and as part of Task Group 21.12 in April-June 1943.


John Denver dies in an aircraft accident

To those who bought records like “Rocky Mountain High” and “Take Me Home, Country Roads” by the millions in the 1970s, John Denver was much more than just a great songwriter and performer. With his oversized glasses, bowl haircut and down vest, he was an unlikely fashion icon, and with his vocal environmentalism, he was the living embodiment of an outdoorsy lifestyle that many 20-something baby boomers would adopt as their own during the “Me” decade. There never was and there probably never will be a star quite like John Denver, who died on October 12, 1997 when his experimental amateur aircraft crashed into Monterey Bay on the California coast.

Born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr., in 1943, not in the mountains of Colorado but in Roswell, New Mexico, John Denver rose to fame as a recording artist in 1971, when “Take Me Home, Country Roads” rose all the way to #2 on the Billboard pop chart. In fact, Denver already had a share in a #1 hit as the writer of “Leaving On A Jet Plane,” a chart-topper for Peter, Paul and Mary in 1969. But it was his 1971 breakout as a performer of his own material that made him a household name. Over the course of the 1970s, John Denver earned five more top-10 singles, including the #1 hits “Sunshine On My Shoulders” (1974), 𠇊nnie’s Song” (1974), “Thank God I’m A Country Boy” (1975) and “I’m Sorry” (1975). Even more impressive, he released an astonishing 11 albums that were certified Platinum by the RIAA, making him one of the most successful recording artists of the 70s, and launching him into a successful career in film and television as well.

By the 1990s, Denver was still a popular touring musician, though he was no longer recording new material with significant commercial success. Over the course of his career, he had become an accomplished private pilot with more than 2,700 hours on various single- and multi-engine aircraft, with both an instrument and a Lear Jet rating. On October 12, 1997, however, he was flying an aircraft with which he was relatively unfamiliar, and with which he had previously experienced control problems, according to a later investigation by the National Transportation Safety Board. At approximately 5:30 pm local time, after a smooth takeoff from a Pacific Grove airfield and under ideal flying conditions, Denver apparently lost control of his Long-EZ aircraft several hundred feet over Monterey Bay, leading to the fatal crash.

A movie star and political activist as well as a musician, John Denver was one of the biggest stars of his generation, and is credited by the Recording Industry Association of America with selling more than 32 million albums in the United States alone.


Contents

After World War II, the concept of light tanks was resurrected in the USSR. They were to be used in reconnaissance units and therefore an amphibious ability was essential. The requirements stated that the vehicle should be able to cross water obstacles with little preparation. Many prototypes of such light tanks were built in the late 1940s. The most successful was "объект 740" (Object 740) designed by the engineer N. Shashmurin working at the VNII-100 institute in Leningrad (a research institute of Chelyabinsk Tank Factory ChTZ) in 1949–1950, under an initial supervision of Josef Kotin from Kirov Plant. [2] The vehicle was successful because it had a simple design, good navigational traits and a good cross country capability. At the time, its water-jet design was innovative. [3]

A prototype was built at Kirov Plant in 1950 and the tank was officially adopted on 6 August 1951 with the designation PT-76. [4] Production started at the Stalingrad Tractor Factory (STZ). The tank was subsequently modified. In 1957, the D-56T gun was replaced with the D-56TM - with double-baffle muzzle brake and fume extractor - and the hull was raised by 13 cm, additionally the tank was equipped with new vision and communications devices. [4] First series tanks were subsequently modified, receiving the D-56TM gun and new equipment. In 1959 an improved variant, the PT-76B, was adopted and remained in production until 1967 [4] (main improvements were: D-56TS gun with stabilization and CBRN protection).

In 1964 the United States obtained a PT-76 by undisclosed means. The tank was evaluated by the Tank-Automotive Center in February, and was deemed inferior to American tanks. [5]

The PT-76 has a typical tank layout: the steering compartment at the front, the combat compartment in the center and the engine compartment at the back. The tank has a three-man crew, with the commander also acting as the radio operator and gunner. This reduces his effectiveness as an observer. The commander and loader stations are located inside the turret, the commander sits on the left side of the main gun and the loader sits on the right. They have a large oval shaped double hatch, which opens forwards on top of the turret. The driver sits in the center of the front of the hull and has a one piece hatch that opens to the right, with three vision blocks and periscopes located beneath the main gun at the top of the sloping glacis plate. Under the driver's seat, there is an emergency hatch that can be used by all crew members. At night, the center periscope is swapped for a TVN-2B night vision device which gives the driver clear vision up to 60 meters. [6] [7] [8]

Armament Edit

Its main armament consists of a 76.2 mm D-56T series rifled tank gun, which has an effective range of approximately 1,500 meters and a rate of fire of six to eight rounds per minute. This gun is 42 calibers long. The PT-76 carries 40 rounds for its gun. A typical ammunition load consists of 24 x OF-350 Frag-HE, 4 x AP-T, 4 x API-T and 8 x BK-350M HEAT rounds (with AP-T rounds substituted for HVAP when available). The gun is mounted in an oval dish-type circular truncated cone turret with flat, sloping sides which is mounted over the second, third, and fourth pair of road wheels. All PT-76s have a fume extractor for the main gun at the rear of the turret. [1] [6] [7] [8]

The 7.62 mm SGMT coaxial medium machine gun comes with 1,000 rounds. This weapon has a maximum effective range of 1,000 meters in daylight while the vehicle is stationary, 400 to 500 meters in daylight while the vehicle is on the move and 600 meters at night. Maximum range is 1,500 meters. It can be fired in 2 to 10 round bursts and has a practical rate of fire of 250 rounds per minute and a cyclic rate of fire of 650 rounds per minute. From 1967, the machine gun was replaced with PKT of the same caliber. [4]

The main gun, considered light for a modern tank, can fire BM-354P HVAP, API-T, AP-T, BR-350 API-T and OF-350 Frag-HE rounds (as can the 76.2 mm M1942 (ZiS-3) divisional gun) and is capable of penetrating the armour of APCs and other lightly armored vehicles.

The commander/gunner has a cupola on the left side of the double hatch. The cupola has the TPKU-2B observation device and two TNP day periscopes and can be rotated 360 degrees by hand. The commander also has a 4X optical sight mounted to the left of the main armament and a TShK-66 sight/rangefinder. The loader has the MK-4 observation device mounted on the turret's roof in front of the hatch.

Ammunition Edit

The BM-354P High Velocity Armor Piercing (HVAP) round has a maximum effective range of 650 meters by day and 600 meters at night. Its maximum aimed range is 1,060 meters. It can penetrate 127 mm of armour at muzzle and 50 mm at 1,000 meters. The armour-piercing round can pierce 60 mm of armor inclined at 60 degrees from a range of 2,000 meters. The BK-350M High Explosive Anti Tank or HEAT round has a maximum effective range of 650 meters by day and 600 meters at night. Its maximum range is 1,000 meters. It can penetrate 280 mm of armour at 1,000 meters. The OF-350 Frag-HE round has a maximum effective range of 600 meters at night and a maximum range of 4,000 meters. The gun can be fired while the vehicle is afloat. The gun can also be depressed and elevated between −4 and +30 degrees so like most Soviet tanks, the PT-76 has a limited ability to depress its main gun, and therefore can have difficulty finding a hull down fire position on higher ground. One of the greatest disadvantages of the gun used on the PT-76 Model 1 was that it had no stabilization system and therefore couldn't be effectively fired while the vehicle was on the move. The PT-76 Model 2 has a 1-axis stabilization system and the PT-76B has a 2-axis system.

Countermeasures Edit

The armor of the PT-76 consists of homogeneous, cold-rolled, welded steel. Its turret has 20 mm at 35° at the front, 16 mm at 35° at the sides, 11 mm at 33° at the rear and 8 mm at 0° on top of the turret. The hull is made up of: 10 mm at 80° at the upper front, 13 mm at 80° at the lower front, 14 mm at 0° at the sides, 7 mm at 0° in the rear and 5 mm at 0° underneath. This gives it protection against 7.62 mm small arms fire and small artillery shell fragments. It does not protect it against 12.7 mm or .50-caliber heavy machine gun fire or larger shell fragments. [1] [3] [6] [8] [9]

Mobility Edit

Land Edit

The torsion bar suspension consists of six evenly spaced large rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. The road wheels are hollow to minimize weight. These hollow road wheels increase the tank's buoyancy by 30%. There are no track-return rollers. The first and last road wheels have a hydraulic shock absorber and the steel tracks have 96 links each when new, each link has a single pin. There is a small, thin, horizontal skirt over each track. Its straight 6-cylinder, 4-stroke water-cooled diesel engine was developed under the designation "V-6" by halving the "V-12"-engine from the T-54/55. It develops 240 hp (179 kW) at 1,800 rpm which gives it a road speed of 44 km/h and a range of 370 km to 400 km. The vehicle can cross 1.1 m high vertical obstacles and 2.8 m wide trenches and climb 52° gradients. The engine has a cooling system and an initial heater (intended for use when the air temperature is −20 °C or colder). The PT-76 has a 5-speed manual shaft-type transmission system similar to the one in the T-34/85. The gearbox has four forward gears and one reverse. The vehicle has a side clutch that enables it to make turns and a handbrake. The tank has four mounts for additional external fuel tanks at the rear of the hull. The two on the corners are for flat type external tanks and the two in the center are for a drum type. These additional tanks increase the range from 370 to 400 km to 480–510 km. The PT-76 is a reliable, simple to operate and highly mobile reconnaissance vehicle and is ideally designed for amphibious operations, but it has many limitations as a fighting vehicle. [1] [6] [7] [8] [10] [11] [12]

Water Edit

The PT-76 is amphibious, it has a flat, boat-shaped hull which is hermetical and ensures minimal resistance when the tank is afloat. It can swim after switching on the two electric bilge pumps, erecting the trim vane which improves the vehicle's stability and displacement in the water and prevents water from flooding into the bow of the tank. Switching the driver's periscope for a swimming periscope enables the driver to see over the trim vane. When not in use the trim vane is stowed in the front of the bow over the barrel of the main gun and serves as additional armor. Bilge pumps keep the tank afloat even if it leaks or is damaged. There is a manual bilge pump for emergency use. The tank is propelled through the water by two hydrojets, one on each side of the hull, with the inlets underneath the hull and the outlets at the rear. There are also additional assistant water-jet inlets on both sides of the hull over the last road wheels. The rear outlets have lids that can be fully or partially closed, redirecting the water stream to the forward-directed outlets at the sides of the hull, thus enabling the vehicle to turn or go in reverse. To turn to the left for example, the left water-jet is covered, to turn to the right, the right water-jet is covered. To make a 180° turn, one water-jet sucks in water while the other pushes it out. This system was designed by N. Konowalow. It is the same system as the one used in the BTR-50 APC, which was based on the PT-76. The tank can swim at up to 10.2 km/h and has a range of 100 km. It can cross most water obstacles and can also swim in the sea. However, its amphibious design makes it disproportionally large for a vehicle of its weight and allows less armor protection than other light tanks. [1] [6] [7] [11]

Equipment Edit

The PT-76 is equipped with a tank communication device, a gyro compass, a 10-RT-26E radio with an antenna that extends itself when needed. It also has two headlights in front of the hull and a searchlight on the right-hand side of the top of the turret. It lagged behind other Soviet armoured fighting vehicles because only the driver had a night vision device and also because it has no fire or NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) protection systems, which significantly reduced its effectiveness. The lack of NBC protection ended with the PT-76B, which has the PAZ ("protivo-atomnaya zashchita") NBC protection system. Because only the driver has night vision equipment, the crew has a vision range of 4,000 m (13,000 ft) by day and 600 m (2,000 ft) at night. [1] [6] [7] [8]

About 5,000 PT-76s were built during the vehicle's lifetime, [4] of which some 2,000 were exported [ citation needed ] . Over 25 countries employed the vehicle, including Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, China, Congo, Cuba, Egypt, Finland, Guinea, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Laos, Madagascar, Mozambique, North Korea, Pakistan, Poland, North Vietnam, and Yugoslavia. [1]

The PT-76 was used as the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact armies. It was also intended for water obstacle fording operations and naval infantry landings. It served in the reconnaissance subunits of tank divisions and mechanized divisions of the Red Army and Soviet marines divisions. Although it has been replaced in front line service by the BMP-1, it may still be found in the reconnaissance companies and battalions of some motorized rifle and tank regiments and divisions, as well as in naval infantry units. Aside from its reconnaissance role, it is also used for crossing water obstacles in the first wave of an attack and for artillery support during the establishment of a beachhead. [6] The main disadvantage of the BMP-1 and the BRM-1 when compared to the PT-76 is the absence of a powerful main armament. However, the BRM-1 is fitted with more modern reconnaissance equipment. Also, both vehicles have stronger front armor and superior mobility features and the BMP-1 can carry up to 8 fully equipped soldiers inside. The PT-76 is still on active service in a number of countries mainly in the third world. The Russian Army is reported to have used PT-76 units in the ongoing war in Chechnya. [1] [7]

The PT-76 is used/stationed by/in following Russian units/bases: 61st tank repair plant (1), 61st Kirkinesskaya marine brigade (26) from Sputnik, which is part of the Murmansk military district, 175th marine brigade (26) from Tumannyy, which is part of the Murmansk military district and 336th Belostokskaya marine brigade (26) from Baltyysk, which is part of the Kaliningrad military district. [13]

In Ludowe Wojsko Polskie (LWP), PT-76s and PT-76Bs were used by the reconnaissance subunits of tank divisions and mechanized divisions and Coastal Defense units including the 7th Lusatian Landing Division (officially known as 7th Coast Defense Division). [7] Poland also operated FROG-5 "Luna" tactical missile launch vehicles. [14]

PT-76s were in service with the Indian Army and they were in reserve status before they were withdrawn from service in 2009, after which they were used for target practice by the army and as static memorials at various military facilities. [15]

Combat service Edit

Vietnam War Edit

Soviet PT-76s along with T-54s, T-55s, and Chinese Type 59s, Type 62 tanks formed the bulk of the People's Army of Vietnam armored forces.

The first successful action of NVA armor in Vietnam was against the Lang Vei Special Forces camp on 6/7 February 1968 [16] (they had already been used in the preceding Battle of Ban Houei Sane, which was just across the border in Laos however). Thirteen PT-76s, of the NVA 202nd Armored Regiment spearheaded an assault against approximately 24 Green Berets, 500 Vietnamese irregulars and 350 Laotian Royal soldiers. The defenders fought back with their 106 mm M40 recoilless rifle (one at the entrance took out three PT-76s until it was knocked out), and ineffectively with M72 LAWs (one-shot disposable 66 mm Light Anti-Tank Weapon). They requested support from nearby Khe Sanh, which was unable to help, as it too was under siege. [16] The Lang Vei camp was overrun, with the PT-76s using their turret-mounted spotlight-equipped heavy machine guns to shoot down any irregulars who panicked and ran out of the underground bunkers. A few survivors broke out and were airlifted to safety.

The first tank-to-tank engagement occurred in mid-1968 when a US reconnaissance airplane observed a PT-76 being washed by its crew in the Bến Hải River in the DMZ (17th Parallel). The Forward Air Control pilot radioed the tank's position to a nearby M48 Patton tank unit of the US 3rd Marine Tank Battalion. With the FAC adjusting fire, the Patton fired three 90 mm rounds [16] obtaining a hit with the third round. The tank crew abandoned their vehicle. Shortly afterwards, some returning F-4 Phantom jet fighter bombers, with ordnance to expend, observed the PT-76 and bombed the remainder of the vehicle. [16]

Battle of Ben Het Edit

The Battle of Ben Het was the only NVA–US Army tank battle during the course of the Vietnam War. 10 North Vietnamese PT-76 faced American M48 Patton tanks. [18] On March 3, 1969, the Special Forces camp at Ben Het was attacked by the NVA 202nd Armored Regiment. The 202nd was given the task of destroying the camp's 175 mm self-propelled guns. [16] [19] One of the PT-76s had detonated a land mine, which not only alerted the camp, but also lit up the other PT-76s attacking the firebase. Flares had been sent up, thus exposing adversary tanks, but sighting in on muzzle flashes, one PT-76 scored a direct hit on the turret of a M48, killing two Patton crewmen and wounding two more. A second Patton, using the same technique, destroyed a PT-76 with their second shot. At daybreak, the battlefield revealed the wreckage of two PT-76s and one BTR-50 armored personnel carrier. [16]

First combat use of the TOW missile Edit

The PT-76 was involved in a landmark incident in armored warfare, in being the first victim of the BGM-71 TOW missile. [20]

On April 24, 1972, the US special experimental 1st Combat Aerial TOW Team arrived in Vietnam. It consisted of two UH-1B helicopters mounting the new BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile, and technicians from Bell Helicopters and Hughes Aircraft Corporation. It deployed in the Central Highlands, where it commenced gunnery training. From May 2, the team made daily flights in search of enemy armor, with the missiles mounted in the XM26 three-tube launcher. On May 9, NVA armored units attacked the Ranger camp at Ben Het the TOW team destroyed 3 PT-76s and broke up the attack. [21]

On May 26, the North Vietnamese Army made another attempt to retake the city of Kontum. TOW aircraft were brought in at first light and found NVA tanks moving almost at will through portions of the city. Conventional air strikes would have been risky for friendly forces, and the TOW proved to be ideal for picking off enemy tanks. [22] At the end of the first day, the two TOW helicopters had destroyed 9 tanks and damaged one more. Four destroyed and one damaged were PT-76s. [16] [23] [24]

Indian Service Edit

The PT-76 saw action with Indian forces in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and 1971. Despite their age, the superior tactics of the Indian Army enabled the PT-76 to play a vital role in the Eastern theater of the 1971 war where the PT-76s proved superior to the obsolete Pakistani M24 Chaffee light tanks despite being outnumbered. A good example of such an engagement was the Battle of Garibpur, where an Indian Army Infantry Battalion with only 14 PT-76s was able to maul a much larger brigade-strength unit of Pakistani armor and inflict heavy casualties. [25]

During the battle 8 Pakistani M24 Chaffee tanks were destroyed, 3 captured at the cost of 2 PT-76. [26]

Other combat Edit

The PT-76 also saw service in the Six-Day War (1967) during which the Israeli army destroyed or captured a few PT-76 tanks. During the Yom Kippur War in 1973 PT-76s were used during the crossing of the Great Bitter Lake by the Egyptian 130th Marines Brigade. [11] [27]

The People's Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) deployed PT-76s during the Angolan Civil War, as did Cuba during its lengthy military intervention in that country. One FAPLA PT-76 was destroyed by a South African Ratel-90 armoured car during Operation Moduler. [28] At least six others were captured by South African expeditionary forces over the course of that conflict. [29]

During the Yugoslav wars, the PT-76 served with the Yugoslav People's Army and later the army of the Krajina Serbs in a few battles during the Ten-Day War in Slovenia (1991) and Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995).

The Indonesian Marine Corps used its PT-76Bs on the Indonesian island of Ambon during Maluku sectarian conflict in 1999-2003. [30]


Unparalleled Destruction

King Philip’s War is considered the bloodiest war per capita in U.S. history. It left several hundred colonists dead and dozens of English settlements destroyed or heavily damaged.

Thousands of Indians were killed, wounded or captured and sold into slavery or indentured servitude. The war decimated the Narragansett, Wampanoag and many smaller tribes and mostly ended Indian resistance in southern New England, paving the way for additional English settlements.


P.S. 76 A. Philip Randolph

PS 76 has a warm, tolerant culture, despite many challenges. Teachers are happy to be here and children and parents feel safe and welcome, according to school surveys. But nearly one-third of the children at PS 76 are homeless, and the instability in their lives makes it hard for them to succeed at school. Nearly half the children miss more than a month of school so it's no surprise that most PS 76 students have weak academic skills.

Children assigned to the temporary shelter across the street register for PS 76, only to be reassigned to another shelter in Brooklyn or the Bronx within a few weeks, says long-time Principal Charles DeBerry. Some then transfer to schools near their new shelters others stay at PS 76 and commutebut are often late to school because of the distance involved.

The proliferation of charters schools in the past decade has added to the churn at PS 76, says DeBerry, principal since 2003. Throughout the year, he says, children arrive at PS 76 who have been asked to leave charters because they are struggling academically or have behavior problems at the beginning of each year, some childrenoften the most academically successful onesleave PS 76 for the charters, De Berry says.

"There's a constant turnover," DeBerry says. He said 20 children transferred into his school from charters between August 2016 and the first week of March 2017 in the same period, 23 children left for charters.

Although most of the children who live in the attendance zone choose charter schools, gifted programs or other public school options downtown, PS 76 attracts children from adjoining District 5 in Manhattan and the Bronx. "We're a desirable school for children who aren't zoned for it," DeBerry says with a smile. "We go out of our way to make everyone welcome." The school has added a 6th, 7th and 8th grade in recent years to boost enrollment and to offer children some continuity from elementary to middle school, he said.

There are lots of extra adults in the classroom and special services provided by the Harlem Children's Zone, a community organization. The school opens its gym and computer lab for middle school students at 7 am (elementary school students may arrive for breakfast at 7:30 am). Harlem Children's Zone offers free afterschool until 6 pm. DeBerry, who came to teaching after a career as a first lieutenant in the Air Force, is well-liked by parents and staff, according to school surveys.

The academics are mostly traditional. On our visit, pre-kindergartners traced letters kindergartners played word bingo and 2nd graders listed to their teacher read aloud from The Earth Dragon Awakens, historical fiction about the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, while 3rd graders read short passages from stories and answered questions as part of preparation for the state's standardized reading tests.

SPECIAL EDUCATION: The school offers SETSS (special education teacher support services) and self-contained classes for children with special needs only. The building houses a District 75 school for children with severe disabilities.

ADMISSIONS: Neighborhood school. More than half the children enrolled in the school live outside the attendance zone. (Clara Hemphill, March 2017)


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Becoming Queen

In 1952, while on vacation at Sagana Lodge in Kenya, news of King George VI’s death reached the couple. Prince Philip was the person to break the news to Elizabeth, who was just 25 years old at the time.

Having ascended to the throne, Elizabeth II’s coronation took place on 2 June 1953. Prince Philip was the first to swear allegiance to the new queen, describing himself as her “liege man of life and limb”. Incidentally, becoming consort to his wife spelled the end of Philip’s Royal Navy career, and years later, when Philip’s biographer Gyles Brandreth asked him how he thought he was perceived, he replied: “I don’t know. A refugee husband, I suppose”.

Difficult times

In 1992, the Queen had what she has famously described as an ‘annus horribilis’, or ‘horrible year’. The marriages of three out of four of her children had ended, and the whole family had been the attention of multiple media scandals (including, notably, the confirmation of an affair between Charles, Prince of Wales, and socialite Camilla Parker Bowles). Also that year, a fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of the Queen’s residences, causing extensive damage.

The royal couple have also had to face a number of other close bereavements over the years. These include, notably, the death of the Queen Mother in 2002, and the death of the Queen’s sister, Princess Margaret, in the same year.

When Princess Diana died in a car crash in 1997, just one year after her divorce from Prince Charles, the response from the royal family came under criticism from the public. Under pressure to demonstrate her grief, the Queen made an unprecedented TV broadcast in which she described Diana as an “exceptional and gifted human being”. “I admired and respected her,” she said, “for her energy and commitment to others, and especially for her devotion to her two boys.” The Queen was later accused by some of not expressing enough sadness.

Jubilee celebrations

As the longest-reigning British monarch in history, the Queen has celebrated a number of jubilees – silver (1977), golden (2002), diamond (2012) and, most recently, sapphire (2017). In a speech addressing the Houses of Parliament on 20 March 2012, to mark her diamond jubilee, she noted that Prince Philip “has been a constant strength and guide” to her throughout her reign. Indeed, the prince has accompanied the Queen on many of her royal engagements, and when he announced his retirement from his duties in August this year, he had completed 22,219 by himself.

Expanding the family

The Queen and Prince Philip have eight grandchildren in total – Prince William of Wales, Prince Harry of Wales, Peter Phillips, Zara Tindall (nee Phillips), Princess Beatrice of York, Princess Eugenie of York, Lady Louise Windsor and James, Viscount Severns.

Their first great-grandchild, Savannah Phillips, was born in 2010 to their grandson Peter and his wife Autumn Phillips, with a second great-granddaughter, Isla Phillips, arriving in 2012. In 2014, a third great-granddaughter called Mia was born to their granddaughter Zara and her husband Mike Tindall. Sadly, the couple’s second pregnancy, which had been due in spring 2017, ended in miscarriage. The couple went on to have another child, Lena Elizabeth Tindall, in 2018.

In 2012, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge’s announcement that they were expecting a baby sparked a remarkable change in royal precedent. The Queen introduced a new rule on royal succession which meant that if the new baby was a girl, she would become the third in line to the throne (and not be overtaken by any future younger brothers). As it was, the baby turned out to be a boy, who was named George. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge later went on to have a baby girl Charlotte, in 2015, and another boy, Louis Arthur Charles, in 2018.

Rachel Dinning is Website Assistant at History Extra.

This article was first published by HistoryExtra in November 2017


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