Jamaica News - History

Jamaica News - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

JAMAICA

In The News

Aid effort for Jamaica


Jamaica profile - Timeline

1509 - Jamaica occupied by the Spaniards under a licence from Columbus's son much of the indigenous Arawak community dies off from exposure to European diseases African slaves brought in to work on the sugar plantations.

1655 - Jamaica is captured by the British.

1670 - Jamaica formally ceded to the British in accordance with the Treaty of Madrid.

1692 - Port Royal, once the busiest trading centre of the British West Indies and infamous for general debauchery, is devastated by an earthquake.

1838 - Slavery abolished.

1865 - The British ruthlessly put down the Morant Bay rebellion, staged by freed slaves in response to acute hardship, and force the local legislature to surrender its powers Jamaica becomes a crown colony.

1870 - Banana plantations set up as the sugar cane industry declines in the face of competition from European beet sugar.

1884 - New constitution marks the initial revival of local autonomy.

1938 - Serious riots caused by unemployment and resentment against British racial policies People's National Party (PNP) founded by Norman Manley.

1944 - Universal adult suffrage introduced new constitution providing for a popularly-elected House of Representatives promulgated.

1958 - Jamaica becomes a member of the British-sponsored Federation of the West Indies.

1961 - Jamaica withdraws from the Federation of the West Indies.

1962 - Jamaica becomes independent within the British Commonwealth with Alexander Bustamante of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) as prime minister.

1972 - Michael Manley becomes prime minister following an impressive victory by the PNP in the general elections and pursues a policy of economic self-reliance.

1976 - The PNP wins another term following elections marked by violence and proceeds to nationalise businesses and build closer ties with Cuba.

1980 - Edward Seaga becomes prime minister after his JLP wins general elections. He proceeds to privatise state enterprises and to distance Jamaica from Cuba. US grants Seaga government substantial aid.

1988 - Jamaica badly hit by Hurricane Gilbert.

1989 - PNP ousts JLP in elections, returning Michael Manley as prime minister. Manley, however, chooses to continue Seaga's policy course.

1992 - Manley retires on health grounds and is succeeded by Percival J Patterson.

1993 - PNP returned to office with an increased majority.

1998 - PNP wins a third term increase in violent crime reported as the economy deteriorates.

1999 April - Violent protests take place against a 30% increase in fuel prices.

1999 July - Government orders the army to patrol the streets of Kingston following a massive increase in crime.

2001 July - Troops and armoured vehicles move in to restore order in the capital, Kingston, after three days of unrest leave at least 27 people dead.

2002 March - Britain's Privy Council - final court of appeal for Jamaica and other former colonies - decides to halt executions in some Caribbean countries, where capital punishment is supported as a deterrent to violent crime. Prime Minister PJ Patterson criticises the move.

Patterson's third term

2002 October - Prime Minister PJ Patterson's People's National Party wins general elections, ushering in fourth successive term in office for party and third term for incumbent premier.

2003 January - UK introduces visa requirement for Jamaicans entering UK London says move is intended to tackle illegal immigration.

2004 March - Ousted former Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide takes up temporary asylum, prompting an angry response from the new Haitian government.

2004 September - Hurricane Ivan - described as the biggest in living memory - pounds the island, destroying thousands of homes.

2005 September - Prime Minister PJ Patterson says he will step down by April 2006.

Opposition leads a day of protest over price increases for utilities and public transport.

2006 February - Local government minister Portia Simpson Miller is elected as head of the ruling People's National Party. She succeeds PJ Patterson to become Jamaica's first female PM in March.

2006 October - Government survives a confidence vote in parliament over the ruling party's acceptance of a campaign donation from a Netherlands-based oil company.

2007 September - Jamaica Labour Party wins general elections, Bruce Golding becomes PM.

2008 November - Parliament votes to keep the death penalty, as Jamaica struggles to contain one of the world's highest murder rates.

2010 May-June - Dozens killed in operation to arrest alleged drug lord Christopher "Dudus" Coke. He is extradited to the US, sentenced and jailed.

2011 October - Andrew Holness takes over as premier, after Golding quits, citing the 'ɽudus'' Coke affair.

2011 December - Portia Simpson-Miller from the People's National Party wins a snap general election.

2012 January - On taking up office, Mrs Simpson-Miller says that 50 years after Jamaica gained its independence from Britain, it is time for the country to break with the British monarchy and become a republic.

2012 November - Jamaica abolishes flogging and whipping from its penal code.

2014 April - Anti-doping officials in Jamaica given Asafa Powell, once the world's top sprinter, an 18-month ban for failing a drugs test.

2015 February - Parliament decriminalises the possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal use. The law also permits the use of marijuana for religious, medical and scientific purposes.


Healing powers

Aston Barrett, an 89-year-old resident, who lives close to Emancipation Street in Sturge Town, said the community is like no other.

"Our water has healing powers and you don't find sick or cripple people around here. I wouldn't live anywhere else. In the morning when I wake and inhale the air, it's like nothing else. We are a very peaceful set of people and this community have everything here. There is always something in season. People live for very long here," he said.

Evidence of its fruitfulness was evident as crops of banana, pimento, cabbage, sweet pepper and breadfruit were bountiful in farms in the community.

Normally at this time, Barrett and others would be preparing to attend the annual Back-A-Yaard festival, but this has been cancelled due to the restrictions from the COVID-19 pandemic.

However, the fact that the event is not being held has no bearing on the importance of Emancipation Day in the North West St Ann constituency.

"No one could just enter Sturge Town and not get picked up. No strangers were allowed. There were just about one or two family living here. Then when slavery came into place, members of the Ashanti tribe were taken here from Africa. The Ashanti put up a fight here because they refused to work as slaves and when the British want to whip them, the Ashanti would work sorcery on them, so they would be the one getting the whipping instead. The British people were just afraid of the Ashanti," said Barrett.

Sturge Town, like most Jamaican communities, has come a long way since 1838 . Though it has many vintage-styled houses and water catchments, some of which date back some six decades, residents say development has not passed them by.

"We have good roads and water and no issue with electricity. We have come a far way from the day we got emancipated," Barrett said.

Similar sentiments were echoed by Nackiesha Robinson and her mother Brenda Simms, who say they are proud of their address and only desire that there would be more opportunities for the youths besides farming.

"We are gifted with farming and history but I would want to see more job opportunities. This is lacking so that is why some of the young people are leaving the space to seek jobs. The community infrastructure is somewhat better and more persons are building homes. There used to be a lot of old graves but some persons have push down some of them and build homes and driveways on them. I am proud to be a resident of Sturge Town, we feel really safe here," Robinson said.


Online News Monitoring Made Simple

Established in 1995, EIN Newsdesk helps millions of users track breaking news across thousands of trusted websites. Users may set up custom email newsletters and RSS feeds or search among thousands of preset news sections. As a member, you may also submit your own news using the EIN Presswire distribution service. Membership is free and we do not sell or lease any information about you. Press release distribution, dedicated APIs, and custom services generate the revenue that allow us to offer you free basic access.

News by Country & by Industry

Track news across more than 5,000 sources by country or industry or search our real-time news index.

News Alerts & News Feeds

News page results can be outputted as RSS or received daily by email. You may also use our NewsPlugin for WordPress.

Submit News

Our EIN Presswire's distribution footprint reaches millions. You can upload news which is re-published through EIN Newsdesk, fed into Twitter and Facebook, and onto partner sites, Google News, Bing News, etc.

World Media Directory

This is a listing of the world’s TV stations, radio stations, newspapers, and blogs. Last update: 06/08/2021


Famous Birthdays

Stamford Raffles

1781-07-06 Stamford Raffles, British statesman and founder of Singapore, born in off the coast of Port Morant, Jamaica (d. 1826)

    James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin & Kincardine and Governor (Jamaica), born in London (d. 1863) Edward John Eyre, British explorer and Governor of Jamaica, born in Whipsnade, England (d. 1901) Leslie Banks, English actor and director (Jamaica Inn, 48 Hours), born in Liverpool, England (d. 1952) Claude McKaye, Jamaican-American author (Songs of Jamaica, Banjo), born in Clarendon Parish, Jamaica (d. 1948) Arthur Benjamin, Australian composer (Jamaican Rumba), born in Sydney, New South Wales (d. 1960) Edna Swithenbank Manley, Jamaican sculptor, wife of PM Clarence Passailaigue, Jamaican cricketer (487 for 6th wkt for Jamaica), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 1972) Robert Marley, Jamaican cricketer (Jamaican batsman 1928-1946, WICBC pres), born in Half Way Tree, Kingston, Jamaica (d. 1995) Florizel Glasspole, 3rd Governor-General of Jamaica (1973-91), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2000) Frank Silvera, Jamaican-American actor (High Chaparral, Killer's Kiss, Fear and Desire), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 1970) Howard Cooke, Governor-General of Jamaica (1991-2006), born in Goodwill, St. James, Jamaica (d. 2014) Arthur Wint, Jamaican runner (d. 1992) Herb McKenley, Jamaican 4 X 400m relay runner (Olympic gold 1952), born in Pleasant Valley, Clarendon, Jamaica (d. 2007) Louis Simpson, Jamaican-American poet (Good News of Death), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2012) Leslie Laing, Jamaican athlete (Olympic gold men's 4x400m relay 1952 WR 3:03.9), born in Linstead, Saint Catherine, Jamaica (d. 2021) George Rhoden, Jamaican athlete (2 Olympic Golds 1952), born in Kingston, Jamaica Laurel Aitken, Jamaican singer and one of the pioneers of Jamaican ska music, born in Cuba (d. 2005) Eddie Kirkland, Jamaican-American blues guitarist, singer and harmonica player (Have Mercy On Me), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2011) Barbara Nichols, American actress (Dear Heart, Disorderly Orderly), born in Queens, New York (d. 1976) Keith Gardner, Jamaican athlete (Olympic bronze 1960) Mike Elliott, saxophonist, born in Jamaica, West Indies Alf Valentine, Jamaican cricketer (great West Indian lefty spinner) Edward Seaga, PM (Jamaica) Clement "Sir Coxsone" Dodd, Jamaican record producer, born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2004) Edward Lucie-Smith, British poet and poetry critic, born in Kingston, Jamaica Ann Flood, American actress (Edge of Night), born in Queens, New York (Rainford) Lee "Scratch" Perry, Jamaican reggae singer-songwriter and producer (The Upsetters), born in Kendal, Jamaica Madge Sinclair, Jamaican actress (Bell-Roots, Trapper John), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 1995) Prince Buster [Cecil Bustamente Campbell], Jamaican-born reggae musician and producer (Madness), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2016) Desmond Dekker, Jamaican reggae pioneer (Aces-Israelites), born in Saint Andrew Parish, Jamaica (d. 2006) Errol Brown, singer-songwriter vocalist (Hot Chocolate), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2015) Patrick Lipton Robinson, Jamaican judge Peter Tosh [Winston Hubert McIntosh], Jamaican reggae musician (The Wailers -"Get Up Stand Up" Mystic Man, Legalize It), born in Westmoreland, Jamaica (d. 1987)

Bob Marley

1945-02-06 Bob Marley, Jamaican reggae musician (Exodus, One Love), born in Nine Mile, Saint Ann, Jamaica (d. 1981)

    Bob Beamon, American track and field long jumper (Olympic gold 1968, 29' 2½" 8.9m), born in South Jamaica, Queens, New York Millie Small, Jamaican ska singer, and songwriter ("My Boy Lollipop"), born in Clarendon, Jamaica (d. 2020) Aston Barrett, Jamaican reggae bassist (I Shot the Sheriff) Bunny Wailer [Neville O'Riley Livingston], Jamaican vocalist and percussionist (The Wailers with Bob Marley), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2021) Bruce Golding, Jamaican politician (8th Prime Minister of Jamaica 2007-11), born in Chapelton, Jamaica Burning Spear [Winston Rodney], Jamaican reggae singer Jamaica Kincaid [Elaine Cynthia Potter Richardsonn], Antiguan-American journalist (NYer), born in St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda "Prince" Lincoln Thompson, Jamaican reggae singer-songwriter ("Humanity" "Daughters Of Zion"), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 1999) Bobby Farrell, Jamaica, rock vocalist Derrick "Duckie" Simpson, rocker (Black Uhuru), born in Kingston, Jamaica Carlton "Carly" Barrett, Jamaican reggae drummer (The Upsetters Bob Marley & Wailers), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 1987) Don Quarrie, Jamaican runner Marcia Barrett, Jamaican-British rock vocalist (Boney M), born in Saint Catherine Parish, Jamaica Sly Dunbar, Jamaican reggae drummer (Sly & Robbie), born in Kingston, Jamaica Liz Mitchell, Jamaican-British rock vocalist (Boney M), born in Clarendon, Jamaica Augustus Pablo, Jamaican musician (King Tubbys Meets Rockers Uptown), born in St. Andrew, Jamaica (d. 1999) Robbie Shakespeare, Jamaican reggae bassist (Sly & Robbie-DJ Riot), born in Kingston, Jamaica Sandra "Puma" Jones, rocker (Black Uhuru), born in Kingston, Jamaica Trevor Berbick, Jamaican professional boxer, born in Norwich, Port Antonio, Jamaica (d. 2006) Tessa Sanderson, British javelin thrower (Olympic gold. 1984), born in Kingston, Jamaica Lincoln Barrington "Sugar" Minott, Jamaican singer (The African Brothers), born in Kingston, Jamaica (d. 2010) David Grant, Jamaica, singer/songwriter (Stop & Go, Heaven Knows) Michael Rose, rocker (Black Uhuru-Brutal, Positive), born in Kingston, Jamaica Angella Issajenko, Jamaica, 4X100m relayer (Olympic silver 1984) Molly Killingbeck, Jamaica, 4X400m relayer (Olympic silver 1984) Bert Cameron, Spanish Town Jamaica, 4X400m relayer (Olympic silver 1988) Linford Christie, British athlete (Olympic gold men's 100m 1992), born in Saint Andrew, Jamaica Merlene Ottey, Jamaican/Italian running star (Olympics) Al Lawrence, Jamaican 4X100m relayer (Olympic silver 1984), born in Jamaica Maxi Priest [Max Elliott], Jamaican/English singer (Wild World) Grace Jackson, Jamaican 200m runner (Olympic silver 1988), born in St. Ann, Jamaica Ben Johnson, Canadian athlete (Olympic 100m gold 1988-disqualified), born in Falmouth, Jamaica

Patrick Ewing

1962-08-05 Patrick Ewing, NBA center (NY Knicks/Olympic gold 1992), born in Kingston, Jamaica

    Sandra Farmer-Patrick, Jamaican-born American 400m hurdler, born in Kingston, Jamaica Devon Malcolm, Jamaican cricketer (in Jamaica England fast bowler 1989-95), born in Kingston, Jamaica Colin Channer, Jamaican writer (often referred as "Bob Marley" with a pen), born in Kingston, Jamaica Barrington Levy, Jamaican reggae and dancehall singer ("Englishman"), born in Clarendon, Jamaica Winthrop Graham, Jamaica, 4x400m runner (Olympic silver 1988) Wayne Smith, Jamaican reggae musician (Under Mi Sleng Teng), born in Kingston, Jamaica Shabba Ranks [Rexton Gordon], Jamaican dancehall musician & reggae deejay (X-tra Naked), born in St. Ann, Jamaica Garnett Silk [Smith], Jamaican reggae musician, born in Manchester, Jamaica (d. 1994) Roger R. Cross, Jamaican-born actor Heavy D [Dwight Errington Myers], Jamaican-American rapper, born in Mandeville, Manchester, Jamaica (d. 2011) Donovan Bailey, Manchester Jamaica, Canada 100m runner (Olympic 2 gold-96) Evan Parke, Jamaican actor Katie Anderson, Canadian 100m hurdler (Olympic 7th-92, 96), born in Kingston, Jamaica Nehemiah Perry, cricketer (fine Jamaican off-spinner)

Shaggy

1968-10-22 Shaggy [Orville Richard Burrell], Jamaican-American reggae musician and rapper (Boombastic), born in Kingston, Jamaica

    Glen Johnson, Jamaican boxer (IBF, IBO and Ring magazine light heavyweight titles 2004-05), born in Clarendon Parish, Jamaica Diana King, Jamaican singer and songwriter ("Shy Guy", "I Say a Little Prayer" remake), born in St. Catherine, Jamaica Frank Sinclair, Jamaican soccer defender (28 caps Chelsea, Leicester City), born in Lambeth, England Stephen Marley, Jamaican-American reggae musician, son of Bob Marley, born in Wilmington, Delaware Bounty Killer [Rodney Basil Price], Jamaican deejay, born in Trench Town, Kingston, Jamaica Robert Esmie, Canadian 4X100m runner (Olympic gold 1996), born in Kingston, Jamaica Sean Paul, Jamaican dancehall singer, born in Kingston, Jamaica Michael Johnson, English-born Jamaican footballer, born in St. Louis, Missouri Jeff Cunningham, Jamaican American soccer player, born in Montego Bay, Jamaica Elephant Man [Oneal Bryan], Jamaican musician (Let's Get Physical), born in Kingston, Jamaica Sizzla Kalonji [Miguel Orlando Collins], Jamaican reggae musician, born in Kingston, Jamaica Damian Marley, Jamaican musician, born in Kingston, Jamaica Ricardo Gardner, Jamaican footballer, born in St. Andrew Parish, Jamaica

Chris Gayle

1979-09-21 Chris Gayle, Jamaican West Indies cricketer (1999-) and fastest century maker in history, born in Kingston, Jamaica


Jamaican mom proud of history-making black valedictorian at Princeton University

(Jamaica Gleaner) Jamaican Dr Anita Brown-Johnson said yesterday that she was not shocked that her son Nicholas Johnson’s record of academic excellence paved the way for his history-making exploits as the first black valedictorian of Princeton University.

Princeton confirmed late April that the 22-year-old scholar was the first black valedictorian in the Ivy League school’s 274-year history.

Johnson, who is from Montreal, Canada, was also named valedictorian years earlier at Selwyn House High.

“I feel overjoyed for him because I admire his discipline and his commitment towards his study, which he has always exhibited. There is that joy and happiness for him, but at the same time gratitude for all who have contributed in a mentorship role,” Brown-Johnson told The Gleaner yesterday evening.

Brown-Johnson said that she was proud that Nicholas topped a graduating class of 1,300 at a university ranked number one in the world for undergraduate studies.

“I am surprised he ended up at the very top, but at the same time, I know his capabilities and work ethic which is incredible, so in that sense it’s not so much of a surprise,” Brown-Johnson said.

Johnson majored in operations research and financial engineering and wrote his senior thesis on developing algorithms to design a community-based preventive health intervention to decrease obesity in Canada.

In an interview with CNN, the scholar said that it felt empowering being the first black valedictorian given Princeton’s historical ties to the institution of slavery and said he hopes his achievement motivates other black students.

ACADEMIC HONOURS

Among his academic honours, Johnson is a recipient of the Class of 1883 English Prize for Freshmen in the School of Engineering, a two-time recipient of the Shapiro Prize for Academic Excellence, and co-recipient with Sommers of the Class of 1939 Princeton Scholar Award. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in fall 2019 and to Tau Beta Pi in 2018, where he served as president of the Princeton Chapter in 2019.

As a senior, Johnson was employed as a software engineer in machine learning at Google’s California headquarters.

“When it comes to bookworms, they would often not have much of a personality in terms of having difficulty socialising, but that was never the case with Nicholas. He has always been a very balanced student and always very much liked by his peers,” his mother said yesterday.

“He is his own boss and always self-driven. He has always been a leader, so he would always lead the way and carry his peers along in terms of showing them the way or supporting them,” Brown-Johnson, a past student of Excelsior High School, said.

The younger of two children for his parents, Johnson hails from a family of greatness.

His father, Dr Dexter Johnson, a native of The Bahamas, is a dual-degree Harvard-trained physician and oral and maxillofacial surgeon. His mother is an assistant professor of family medicine, an interim chief of the department of family medicine, and director of a secondary-care division. Nicholas’ sister, Anastacia Johnson, is currently completing her Master of Fine Arts and was nominated for four Grammy Awards.

With Princeton’s in-person graduation ceremony cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic, it will hold a virtual one on May 31.

In the fall, Johnson will begin his doctoral studies in operations research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


Jamaica timeline

1509 - Jamaica occupied by the Spaniards under a licence from Columbus's son much of the indigenous Arawak community dies off from exposure to European diseases African slaves brought in to work on the sugar plantations.

1655 - Jamaica is captured by the British.

1670 - Jamaica formally ceded to the British in accordance with the Treaty of Madrid.

1692 - Port Royal, once the busiest trading centre of the British West Indies and infamous for general debauchery, is devastated by an earthquake.

1838 - Slavery abolished.

1865 - The British ruthlessly put down the Morant Bay rebellion, staged by freed slaves in response to acute hardship, and force the local legislature to surrender its powers Jamaica becomes a crown colony.

1870 - Banana plantations set up as the sugar cane industry declines in the face of competition from European beet sugar.

1884 - New constitution marks the initial revival of local autonomy.

1938 - Serious riots caused by unemployment and resentment against British racial policies People's National Party (PNP) founded by Norman Manley.

1944 - Universal adult suffrage introduced new constitution providing for a popularly-elected House of Representatives promulgated.

1958 - Jamaica becomes a member of the British-sponsored Federation of the West Indies.

1961 - Jamaica withdraws from the Federation of the West Indies.

1962 - Jamaica becomes independent within the British Commonwealth with Alexander Bustamante of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) as prime minister.

1972 - Michael Manley becomes prime minister following an impressive victory by the PNP in the general elections and pursues a policy of economic self-reliance.

1976 - The PNP wins another term following elections marked by violence and proceeds to nationalise businesses and build closer ties with Cuba.

1980 - Edward Seaga becomes prime minister after his JLP wins general elections. He proceeds to privatise state enterprises and to distance Jamaica from Cuba. US grants Seaga government substantial aid.

1988 - Jamaica badly hit by Hurricane Gilbert.

1989 - PNP ousts JLP in elections, returning Michael Manley as prime minister. Manley, however, chooses to continue Seaga's policy course.

1992 - Manley retires on health grounds and is succeeded by Percival J Patterson.

1993 - PNP returned to office with an increased majority.

1998 - PNP wins a third term increase in violent crime reported as the economy deteriorates.

1999 April - Violent protests take place against a 30% increase in fuel prices.

1999 July - Government orders the army to patrol the streets of Kingston following a massive increase in crime.

2001 July - Troops and armoured vehicles move in to restore order in the capital, Kingston, after three days of unrest leave at least 27 people dead.

2002 March - Britain's Privy Council - final court of appeal for Jamaica and other former colonies - decides to halt executions in some Caribbean countries, where capital punishment is supported as a deterrent to violent crime. Prime Minister PJ Patterson criticises the move.

Patterson's third term

2002 October - Prime Minister PJ Patterson's People's National Party wins general elections, ushering in fourth successive term in office for party and third term for incumbent premier.

2003 January - UK introduces visa requirement for Jamaicans entering UK London says move is intended to tackle illegal immigration.

2004 March - Ousted former Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide takes up temporary asylum, prompting an angry response from the new Haitian government.

2004 September - Hurricane Ivan - described as the biggest in living memory - pounds the island, destroying thousands of homes.

2005 September - Prime Minister PJ Patterson says he will step down by April 2006.

Opposition leads a day of protest over price increases for utilities and public transport.

2006 February - Local government minister Portia Simpson Miller is elected as head of the ruling People's National Party. She succeeds PJ Patterson to become Jamaica's first female PM in March.

2006 October - Government survives a confidence vote in parliament over the ruling party's acceptance of a campaign donation from a Netherlands-based oil company.

2007 September - Jamaica Labour Party wins general elections, Bruce Golding becomes PM.

2008 November - Parliament votes to keep the death penalty, as Jamaica struggles to contain one of the world's highest murder rates.

2010 May-June - Dozens killed in operation to arrest alleged drug lord Christopher "Dudus" Coke. He is extradited to the US.

2011 October - Andrew Holness takes over as premier, after Golding quits, citing the ''Dudus'' Coke affair.

2011 December - Portia Simpson-Miller from the People's National Party wins a snap general election.

2012 January - On taking up office, Mrs Simpson-Miller says that 50 years after Jamaica gained its independence from Britain, it is time for the country to break with the British monarchy and become a republic.


  • OFFICIAL NAME: Jamaica
  • FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary democracy
  • CAPITAL: Kingston
  • POPULATION: 2,812,090
  • OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: English
  • MONEY: Jamaican dollar
  • AREA: 4,411 square miles (10,992 square kilometers)
  • MAJOR MOUNTAIN RANGES: Blue Mountains, John Crow Mountains, Don Figuero Mountains, Cockpit Country
  • MAJOR RIVERS: Black River, Rio Cobre, Rio Grande

GEOGRAPHY

Jamaica is a mountainous island in the Caribbean Sea about 600 miles (965 kilometers) south of Miami, Florida. It is part of the chain of Caribbean islands called the Greater Antilles, along with Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. Jamaica was formed when the North American and Caribbean tectonic plates collided about 25 million years ago.

Jamaica is the tip of a mountain rising from the sea floor. Nearly half of the island is more than 1,000 feet (330 meters) above sea level. There are lush rolling hills that are ideal for agriculture and coastal beach regions that are popular with tourists.

Map created by National Geographic Maps

PEOPLE & CULTURE

Most of the population lives in the city and one third of all Jamaicans live in the capital of Kingston. More than 90 percent of the population is of African descent, but many other people have come from China, India, Germany, and Syria to find work on the island. Jamaica's motto is "Out of Many, One People."

When most people think of Jamaica they think of Reggae, or "Ragged Music." The music was born in the 1950s and '60s from the musical styles of mento, ska, and rocksteady. The most famous reggae star was Bob Marley, who was backed by his group the Wailers. Other famous reggae stars include Desmond Dekkar, Jimmy Cliff, Peter Tosh, and Burning Spear.

Jamaicans are spiritual people and follow many religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, and Islam. Many are Rastafarians, followers of a Christian-based faith, which grew out of a civil rights movement in the 1930s.

Rastafarians believe that Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1974, was their savior. Rasta men wear their hair in dreadlocks, believing that hair should not be cut, and wear clothing in red, gold, and green—the colors of the Ethiopian flag.

NATURE

The island is home to the endangered Homerus swallowtail, the largest butterfly in the Western Hemisphere. Its wingspan is 6 inches (25 cm), which makes this insect larger than many of the island's birds.

Bird watchers enjoy the 250 bird species that can be seen on the island, including 26 birds that are found nowhere else. The vervain, the world's second smallest bird is found here. This tiny hummingbird is only 2.5 inches (8 cm) long. Jamaica's national bird is the streamertail hummingbird, or "doctor bird." It has long tail feathers and a scarlet bill.

Jamaica boasts more than 200 orchids and 550 different ferns. One quarter of the 3,000 plant species are endemic, or native species. Years of development have decreased the habitats for wildlife on the island. The American crocodile, manatee, and iguana are rare now because they were hunted for meat and hides.


Jamaican scholar makes history at US college

Christian and two other women attained a grade point average (GPA) of 4.0, resulting in a tie for the valedictorian title, a first in the institution’s history.

Academic success, however, is not new to the Glenmuir High School alumna. She graduated with 20 Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate and Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination subjects with 14 grades ones and six grade twos. She was subsequently offered a full academic scholarship to pursue a bachelor of business administration degree with a concentration in accounting at LeMoyne-Owen.

Citing her journey to success as no easy feat, she spoke of several socio-economic challenges that fuelled her determination.

“My family isn’t rich, so there was generally an issue trying to figure out where money would come from to send me to school, [money] for food, etc. But things weren’t so tight that I had to miss school because of finances or had to go to bed hungry. Needs were always covered but wants weren’t entertained very often,” she said.

“The biggest challenge I had to overcome was to remind myself not to be defined by the environment I grew up in. I was not raised in the most ideal community, so it took a lot of work to ensure that I was not a product of what I’d see around me every day,” said the scholar who hails from Western Park in Clarendon.

Christian served as a student council representative who led one of the most influential protests on campus, which brought change to student governance at her college in the US.

She shared that amid being involved in a myriad of extracurricular activities, her studies were always atop her priority list.

“I was student government president, a peer tutor, I was volunteering and participating in internships, but I never forgot that I am first and foremost a student. I made sure that I was on top of my assignments and studying, and if I needed to say no to an event or two, I also did that,” Christian told THE STAR. “Keeping a strong GPA was important too, so that I could be competitive when I sent in my résumé for different opportunities.”

She also credits her family, lauding them as the motivation behind her success.

“I’ve seen the sacrifices that my grandparents and mom make and I recognise that I would not be at this point without them,” she said.

Speaking on her plans for Jamaica, she said, “I want to explore the root causes of economic disenfranchisement in Jamaica, and develop solutions which ensure the stability of our financial markets, while providing economic empowerment to the under-resourced and less-advantaged. I want to work towards a future where policymaking in Jamaica directly addresses the structural problems arising from economic inequality.”

Christian believes students are geared for success once they pursue their passion.

“Don’t choose what’s prestigious or what others want you to do. You become a lot better at your craft when you are genuinely passionate about it,” she said.


Jamaica Culture

Religion in Jamaica

Jamaica has the most churches per capita of any country in the world. Protestant majority (Anglican, Baptist, Church of God and Methodist) with Roman Catholic, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu and Bahai communities. Rastafarianism, a religion based on belief in the divinity of the late Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari), is also widely practised. Jamaica also has a number of small spiritualist cults.

Social Conventions in Jamaica

Away from the fast-paced capital city, Jamaica is slow and relaxed. Handshaking is the customary form of greeting. Jamaicans are hospitable and it is not uncommon to be invited into a local home where normal social conventions apply. When it comes to day attire, beachwear is only considered appropriate for the poolside or the sand and is frowned upon elsewhere. Eveningwear varies, from the formal jacket-and-tie dress codes in many top restaurants to the more relaxed casual clothing in beach bars. Marijuana, or ganja as it is known in Jamaica, is illegal to possess, use or export. Possession may lead to imprisonment and deportation.



Comments:

  1. Zugor

    You don't have to try everything

  2. Brion

    That this in your head has come to you?

  3. Ashur

    To merge. I agree with all of the above-said. We can talk about this topic.

  4. Macdougal

    Sorry, no to this paragraph .....

  5. Bowden

    the Authoritarian point of view, oddly enough.

  6. Finbar

    There is a site on a theme interesting you.

  7. Shaktijas

    I saw… I saw…. Everything is too exaggerated, but cool)))



Write a message