Battle of Fleurus, 29 August 1622

Battle of Fleurus, 29 August 1622


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Thirty Years War , C.V.Wedgewood. Despite its age (first published in 1938), this is still one of the best english language narratives of this most complex of wars, tracing the intricate dance of diplomacy and combat that involved all of Europe in the fate of Germany.


Battle of Fleurus

The Battle of Fleurus of August 29, 1622 was fought between a Spanish army, and the Protestant Powers of the Holy Roman Empire in the Thirty Years' War.

The bloody struggle left the Protestants mangled and the Spanish masters of the field.

After a short cannonade, Mansfeld ordered a general advance. Some gaps opened up in the poorly drilled German infantry, and De Sylva attacked an exposed flank, routing one Battalion. However, Streiff counterattacked, the Walloon cavalry was wrong footed and suffered considerable damage from enemy pistol fire. De Sylva's cavalry took refuge behind the baggage wagons, while Streiff turned on the Spanish infantry, but without much success.

On the Protestant left, Brunswick had massed most of his cavalry, Cordoba's deployment made it impossible to outflank his position, but Brunswick hoped to overwhelm the Spanish by a massed frontal assault. The first charge was repulsed by Gauchier's cavalry, but Brunswick reordered his command and launched a second charge, the first line was repulsed again but the second line succeeded in pushing back the Walloon Horse. Brunswick turned then against the Spanish infantry, but his own infantry failed to adequately support the attack, the Tercio of Naples held its ground, and murderous enfilade fire from musketeers ambushed in the nearby woods sent the Protestant cavalry reeling back in disorder. In a desperate final charge, Brunswick was wounded, and his cavalry, demoralised, finally fell back. After five hours of fighting, Mansfeld ordered a general retreat, it was midday and he intended to take the road through Liege around Cordoba to reach Breda.

The Spanish army was too tired to follow the enemy. However, next day, Cordoba sent Gauchier with the cavalry, he found the Protestant army strung along the road. The Protestant cavalry fled without putting up much of a fight, leaving the infantry to its fate. In march column, unable to deploy in a defensive formation, the infantry was cut to pieces. Gauchier also captured the artillery and the army baggage. The Protestant army had been all but destroyed.


Battle of Fleurus

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Battle of Fleurus, (June 26, 1794), the most significant battle in the First Coalition phase of the French Revolutionary Wars. Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and Jean-Baptiste Kléber led 73,000 French troops against 52,000 Austrians and Dutch, under Friedrich Josias, prince of Saxe-Coburg, and William V, prince of Orange, stadholder of Holland. Jourdan had taken Charleroi, in the rear of Coburg’s main forces, on June 25, after besieging it since June 12. Coburg, unaware that the town had fallen, was marching to relieve it and to protect his rear forces. His five attack columns were successful at first against the French lines and inflicted very heavy casualties. The larger French force was able to endure the casualties and counterattack. Coburg retreated across the Meuse the next day with only half as many losses as the victorious French. Nevertheless, within a month, the Austrians abandoned the southern Netherlands (modern Belgium), which was annexed by France.


The battle

After a short cannonade, Mansfeld ordered a general advance. Some gaps opened up in the poorly drilled German infantry, and De Sylva attacked an exposed flank, routing one Battalion. However, Streiff counterattacked, the Walloon cavalry was wrong footed and suffered considerable damage from enemy pistol fire. De Sylva's cavalry took refuge behind the baggage wagons, while Streiff turned on the Spanish infantry, but without much success.

On the Protestant left, Brunswick had massed most of his cavalry, Córdoba's deployment made it impossible to outflank his position, but Brunswick hoped to overwhelm the Spanish by a massed frontal assault. The first charge was repulsed by Gauchier's cavalry, but Brunswick reordered his command and launched a second charge, the first line was repulsed again but the second line succeeded in pushing back the Walloon Horse.

Brunswick turned then against the Spanish infantry, but his own infantry failed to adequately support the attack, the Tercio of Naples held its ground, and murderous enfilade fire from musketeers ambushed in the nearby woods sent the Protestant cavalry reeling back in disorder.

In a desperate final charge, Brunswick was wounded, and his cavalry, demoralised, finally fell back. After five hours of fighting, Mansfeld ordered a general retreat, it was midday and he intended to take the road through Liege around Córdoba to reach Breda. [ 5 ]

The Spanish army was too tired to follow the enemy. However, next day, Córdoba sent Gauchier with the cavalry, he found the Protestant army strung along the road. The Protestant cavalry fled without putting up much of a fight, leaving the infantry to its fate. In march column, unable to deploy in a defensive formation, the infantry was cut to pieces. Gauchier also captured the artillery and the army baggage. The Protestant army had been all but destroyed. [ 2 ]


Battle [ edit | edit source ]

The Spanish Netherlands. Fleurus sits midway between Namur and Charleroi near the Sambre River.

On the morning of 1 July, Luxembourg marched his forces towards Fleurus. Waldeck had set up his 38,000 troops in the two customary lines on the high ground between the village of Heppignies on their right and past the chateau of St Amant on their left Waldeck’s front was covered by the Orme stream whose elevated banks made a frontal assault all but impossible. ΐ] Luxembourg divided his forces to attack both flanks of the Allied army – an audacious plan that in order for it to succeed would require secrecy and deception. The columns of the first French line split to take position between Heppignies and Fleurus, with some troops moving up towards St Amant. The two columns of Luxembourg’s right veered off to the north across the Orme, their passage covered by the hedges and wheat fields, and by a screen of French cavalry. Forty cannon were positioned near the chateau of St Amant, and another 30 guns positioned between the chateau and Fleurus.

Luxembourg divides his forces and attacks Waldeck’s army on both flanks.

Unnoticed by Waldeck, Luxembourg had enveloped his flanks. Had the Allied commander realised that Luxembourg had split his army in two, he might have overwhelmed the isolated French left before the right came into position, but he did not. ΐ] After the French right wing was in position (commanded by Luxembourg himself), their artillery opened fire at about 10:00, striking the Allied infantry with great effect. The French left wing, commanded by Lieutenant-General Jean Christophe, comte de Gournay, opened their attack with a cavalry charge but Gournay was killed in the assault his death disordered his cavalry who retired to Fleurus to regroup. Ε] A cavalry charge on the right wing however, met with more success, driving the enemy cavalry back. On the heels of this attack, the French infantry now advanced against both flanks of Waldeck’s line which, finding itself enveloped by the enemy, finally broke. Some of the Allied troops managed to regroup on high ground near Fleurus, but were eventually overwhelmed.

Despite being pressed by French cavalry, Waldeck was able to create a new line with his remaining forces further back. However, this line also collapsed, broken by French infantry flushed with confidence from their initial success. The remainder of Waldeck’s troops streamed towards Nivelles in the best order they could. Ε]


Twilight of Divine Right First Look - The Battle of Fleurus

The Battle of Fleurus (1622), which took place between a Spanish army and Protestant forces in Dutch pay, is one of the two sample scenarios in the new set of rules - Twilight of Divine Right - by Nick Dorrell for the period 1618-1660 in Europe, covering the Thirty Years' War and the English Civil War.

The scenario is helpfully quite small, featuring the following forces:

The Spanish Army:
C-in-C: Cordoba
1 small regiment of Musketeers
1 Elite tercio
1 Tercio
2 Small tercios
2 regiments of Cuirassiers
2 small regiments of Harquebusiers
1 Field gun
Baggage

The Protestant Army:
C-in-C: Mansfeld
1 large regiment of Foot
4 regiments of Foot
7 regiments of Cavalry (Dutch tactics)
2 regiments of Cuirassiers
1 small regiment of Cuirassiers
1 Field gun
Baggage

The aim of the battle is simply for the Protestant army to defeat the Spanish. Not easy, since the Protestant army is mutinous. (there are some special scenario rules for this).

I don't have any specific TYW armies, so I proxied my WotTK's forces: the "Spanish" are Royalists, the "Protestants" are Parliamentarians.


Long before supersonic jet aircraft existed, the armies of the world often employed hot air balloons as a kind of air force. The first use of these 'observation balloons' to influence a battle came at the Battle of Fleurus in 1794, an engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars between France and a Coalition involving Hanover, Hapsburg Monarchy, Dutch Republic and Britain.

A major part of the French victory at Fleurus (which Col. Nicolas Stoult described as fifteen of the most desperate hours of fighting he'd ever witnessed) was the use of the observation balloon l'Entreprenant which constantly provided updates on the Austrian movements. The balloon was operated by the Aerostatic Corps, which was also the world's first air force.


Background

Bohemian revolt

In the Bohemian revolt phase of the Thirty Years' War, the Protestant Bohemian nobility refused to confirm Catholic Ferdinand II as their king and had offered Count Frederick V of the Palatinate the crown of Bohemia. Frederick was crowned in 1619 but lost the kingdom to Catholic League troops under General Tilly at the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620.

Due to disunity among Protestant princes the Protestant Union was forced to declare its neutrality in the conflict in the Treaty of Ulm in 1620 and dissolved the following year.

Palatinate campaign

Count Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden had been one of the Protestant Union's generals and maintained the mercenary army he had raised.

When General Tilly moved the Catholic League army from Bavaria towards the Palatinate in April 1622 to continue the war against Frederick   V, Georg Friedrich declared for Frederick's cause. He marched his army to join General Mansfeld's troops and met with them a few days after their victory against Tilly at the Battle of Mingolsheim on April 27.

By early May, the forces of Christian of Brunswick had arrived to the north of the Neckar River and were prepared to assist their fellow Protestants. While Mansfeld crossed the Neckar at Heidelberg to join with Brunswick and besiege the Spanish garrison at Ladenburg, [1] Georg Friedrich pursued Tilly's army who were retreating east towards the Neckar crossing at Wimpfen. Unknown to the Protestants, a Spanish army under General Córdoba had reinforced Tilly with several thousand men in the meantime.

Late on May 5, the Protestant troops, coming from the southwest, crossed a small creek (called Böllinger Bach) near the village of Obereisesheim   [ de ] and formed up in battle lines.


The Trail

On this day in 1948, U.S. and British pilots begin delivering food and supplies by airplane to Berlin after the city is isolated by a Soviet Union blockade.

When World War II ended in 1945, defeated Germany was divided into Soviet, American, British and French zones of occupation. The city of Berlin, though located within the Soviet zone of occupation, was also split into four sectors, with the Allies taking the western part of the city and the Soviets the eastern. In June 1948, Josef Stalin’s government attempted to consolidate control of the city by cutting off all land and sea routes to West Berlin in order to pressure the Allies to evacuate. As a result, beginning on June 24 the western section of Berlin and its 2 million people were deprived of food, heating fuel and other crucial supplies.

Though some in U.S. President Harry S. Truman’s administration called for a direct military response to this aggressive Soviet move, Truman worried such a response would trigger another world war. Instead, he authorized a massive airlift operation under the control of General Lucius D. Clay, the American-appointed military governor of Germany. The first planes took off from England and western Germany on June 26, loaded with food, clothing, water, medicine and fuel.

By July 15, an average of 2,500 tons of supplies was being flown into the city every day. The massive scale of the airlift made it a huge logistical challenge and at times a great risk. With planes landing at Tempelhof Airport every four minutes, round the clock, pilots were being asked to fly two or more round-trip flights every day, in World War II planes that were sometimes in need of repair.

The Soviets lifted the blockade in May 1949, having earned the scorn of the international community for subjecting innocent men, women and children to hardship and starvation. The airlift–called die Luftbrucke or “the air bridge” in German–continued until September 1949, for a total delivery of more than 1.5 million tons of supplies and a total cost of over $224 million. When it ended, the eastern section of Berlin was absorbed into Soviet East Germany, while West Berlin remained a separate territory with its own government and close ties to West Germany. The Berlin Wall, built in 1961, formed a dividing line between East and West Berlin. Its destruction in 1989 presaged the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union and marked the end of an era and the reemergence of Berlin as the capital of a new, unified German nation.

1096 – Peter the Hermit’s crusaders forced their way across Sava, Hungary.

1483 – Richard III usurped himself to the English throne.

1794 – The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.

1819 – The bicycle was patented by W.K. Clarkson, Jr.

1844 – John Tyler took Julia Gardiner as his bride, thus becoming the first U.S. President to marry while in office.

1900 – The United States announced that it would send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion in China.

1917 – General John “Black Jack” Pershing arrived in France with the American Expeditionary Force.

1924 – After eight years of occupation, American troops left the Dominican Republic.


Tolle Christian's Finest Hour, Fleurus, 1622

ENGLISH (based on Art of Warre's review of W.Krüssmann, Ernst von Mansfeld (1580-1626) crossfireamersfoort.wordpress.&hellip , various portraits of Christian IV, W. Guthrie, Battles of the Thirty Years' War 1618-35):

The battle of Fleurus begun on August 29th, 1622, at dawn. The tercios of Cordoba intended to held their position, blocking the armies of Mansfeld and Brunswick and eventually destroying them. The catholics could count on a good position, better trained and equipped units and a stronger artillery. The protestants' only interest was to break the enemy lines to continue their march towards the Netherlands.

Mansfelder cavalry openend the battle, engaging the spaniards in a furious assault in the center. The tercios were forced to regroup in large, defensive positions, easy targets for the only two cannons Mansfeld had.
But Mansfeld cavalry was hit by musketeers positioned in the woods and could not break through. Meanwhile, Christian von Brunswick on the right wing charged spanish and walloon cavalry four times, trying to outflank the enemy position. A fifth and maybe a sixth charge were launched against the spanish infantry. The drawing is set during one of those charges.
In the foreground, Christian, wearing an outdated armor built in England (known as Greenwich armor). It was given him by the prince of Wales, Henry Frederick (died in 1612): here's a portrait from 1623. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia&hellip . Such a precious item would have hardly been brought into battle, yet I decided to give the Duke a distinctive look from the "standard" (yet probably more realistic) black-armoured cuirassier of the Thirty Years War.
"Tolle Christian" was the nickname given to the duke by the catholics, meaning literally "mad Christian".

ITALIANO (basato sulla recensione del blog Art of Warre su W.Krüssmann, Ernst von Mansfeld (1580-1626) crossfireamersfoort.wordpress.&hellip, vari ritratti di Cristiano di Brunswick, W. Guthrie, Battles of the Thirty Years' War 1618-35)

(Continua da fritzvicari.deviantart.com/art&hellip )
La battaglia di Fleurus iniziò all'alba del 29 Agosto, 1622.
I tercios di Cordoba erano determinati a mantenere la posizione e a bloccare e distruggere gli eserciti di Mansfeld e Brunswick. I cattolici potevano contare su buone posizioni difensive, ottime unità di fanteria e sette pezzi d'artiglieria, contro i due dei protestanti. Questi ultimi non contavano tanto di vincere la battaglia, quanto di riuscire ad aprirsi un varco e raggiungere le Fiandre.

La cavalleria di Mansfeld aprì la battaglia con furiosi assalti al centro. I tercios furono costretti a raggrupparsi per la difesa, rendendosi facili bersagli per l'artiglieria protestante. Tuttavia la cavalleria di Mansfeld veniva colpita dal fuoco d'infilata dei moschettieri spagnoli appostati nei boschi e dietro i carriaggi e l'assalto protestante si stava rivelando inefficace. Sul fianco destro, Cristiano di Brunswick tentò di rompere il blocco guidando i suoi corazzieri in quattro cariche contro la più debole cavalleria spagnola e vallona e una quinta e una sesta carica contro la fanteria. Il disegno è ambientato durante una di queste cariche. In primo piano si può vedere Cristiano, che indossa un'obsoleta armatura di fabbricazione inglese (nota come armatura di Greenwhich), donatagli dal principe del Galles, Enrico Federico (morto nel 1612). Qui c'è il ritratto del 1623 al quale mi sono ispirato (upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia&hellip ).
E' improbabile che un oggetto di tale pregio venisse indossato in battaglia, ma ho comunque deciso di dare al duca un aspetto che lo distinguesse la look "standard" (ma sicuramente più realistico) dei tipici corazzieri in armatura nera delle prime fasi della Guerra dei Trent'anni.

"Tolle Christian", ovvero Cristiano il pazzo, era il soprannome affibbiato al duca dai cattolici.


The Victory at Fleurus

This painting depicts the battle of Fleurus, near Brussels, which pitted troops from the Catholic League commanded by General Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba against Protestant Union soldiers led by Count Ernst von Mansfeld and Prince Christian of Brunswick. The Catholic League’s victory on August 29, 1622 freed Brussels—governed at that time by Isabel Clara Eugenia—from the threat posed by Protestant troops that had entered the Netherlands through Hainaut. That day, a Protestant cavalry of six-thousand men, accompanied by seven-thousand infantrymen, was vanquished by a Catholic force of two thousand riders and eight thousand foot soldiers, with a loss of one thousand two hundred Protestant soldiers, along with their flags and their scant artillery. Catholic losses amounted to barely two hundred dead and four hundred wounded. News of the victory, whose scope was reduced by the fact that the retreating Protestants joined with Dutch troops soon thereafter, reached Madrid on September 19 and was immortalized by Lope de Vega in his comedy La mayor Victoria de Alemania or La nueva victoria de don Gonzálo de Córdoba. And Quevedo offered an exhaustive description of the battle in his Mundo caduco y desvarios de la edad. Born in Cabra (Córdoba) in 1586, Gonzalo de Córdoba was the son of the IV Duke of Sessa and brother of the fifth. He died in Montalbán (Teruel) in 1635. At the age of eighteen he fought in the galleys of the II Marquis of Santa Cruz, and later proved an outstanding general in Flanders, the Palatinate and Italy. Following his victory at Fleurus, he was appointed Prince of Martea by Philip IV in 1624. By the time the present work was painted for the Hall of Realms, however, his reputation had been ruined by a failed attempt to take Casale. The Cabinet of Drawings and Prints at the Uffizi has a drawing with two riders from the Santarelli Collection, which Santarelli and later historians attributed to Antonio Tempesta. However, as Pérez Sánchez observed, it is actually a preparatory drawing for the group in the foreground of the present work. Pérez Sánchez also recalled that Carducho had various volumes of Tempesta’s engravings at the time of his death. It seems logical to deduce that similar battle scenes painted by Carducho, Cajés, Castelo and Leonardo were all influenced mainly by Tempesta’s engravings, although other possible sources have been proposed, including engravings by Maarten van Heemskerck of Charles V’s victories, or those of the Medici’s victories engraved by Giovanni Stradano. Among engravings by Tempesta that may have inspired the paintings in the Hall of Realms, Leticia Ruiz has pointed out two series from 1612—Guerras de los romanos contra los bátavos and Historia de los siete infantes de Lara—and two others from 1613: Vida de Alejandro Magno and Batallas bíblicas.

Museo Nacional del Prado, El Palacio del Rey Planeta, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2005, p.128-129



Comments:

  1. Jeronimo

    How can I know?

  2. Cooey

    Interesting note

  3. Levi

    at you the inquisitive mind :)

  4. Zeleny

    And what, I liked it. Thanks!

  5. Victorino

    You will change nothing.

  6. Salhtun

    This is correct information.



Write a message