Northrop XA-16

Northrop XA-16


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Northrop XA-16

The Northrop XA-16 was the designation given to the XA-13 after it was given a different engine in an attempt to imrpove visibility. On 24 December 1934 the US Army Air Corps placed an order for 110 of these aircraft, based on the Northrop Gamma, but the Wright SR-1820-F2 engine used in the XA-13 was felt to be too big, blocking off the pilots view.

In January 1935 the XA-13 was returned to Northrop, and was given a 950hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-7 fourteen-cylinder radial, which with a smaller diameter gave the pilot a better view. With the new engine came the designation XA-16. The first flight of the XA-16 was made in March 1935, and it soon realised that the new engine was too powerful for the aircraft. The production A-17 would use a 750hp Pratt & Whitney R-1535-11 radial engine.

The XA-16 was later given a R-1830-9 engine, and used at the aircraft mechanic’s school at Roosevelt Field, London Island.

Suggested Reading
McDonnell Douglas: v.1, Rene J. Francillon (Amazon.co.uk)
McDonnell Douglas: v.1, Rene J. Francillon (Amazon.com)


Northrop A-13, A-16, A-17, A-33

Northrop used the Gamma transport as the basis of a private-venture design for a light attack bomber, identifying this as the Northrop Gamma 2C which, powered by a 548kW Wright SR-1820F radial engine, was acquired for evaluation by the US Army Air Corps in June 1934 under the designation YA-13. Subsequently re-engined with a 708kW Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, this aircraft was redesignated XA-16 (Northrop Gamma 2F). Following tests of the YA-13 and XA-16, Northrop received $2 million contract for 110 attack bombers designated A-17, but because testing of the XA-16 had shown that the aircraft was over-powered, the Gamma 2.F was re-engined with a 559kW Pratt & Whitney R-1535 Twin Wasp Junior, serving as the prototype for the A-17. Following the incorporation of several other modifications, the first of 109 production A-17 aircraft was delivered in December 1935. A contract was received in the same month for an improved A-17A, introducing retractable tailwheel landing gear and the 615kW Pratt & Whitney R-1535-13 engine. Some 129 were built, initially by Northrop, but in 1937 Douglas acquired the remaining 49% of Northrop Corporation's stock, and it was the Douglas Company which completed production of these aircraft. Of the total, 93 served with the USAAC for only 18 months, then being returned to Douglas for sale to the UK and France. The Royal Air Force received 60, designating them Nomad Mk I, and all were transferred to the South African Air Force. Douglas also built this aircraft for export under the designation Douglas Model 8A, supplying them to Argentina, Iraq, the Netherlands and Norway. A batch of 34 Model 8A-5 aircraft was also built for Peru, 31 of them being commandeered by the US Army Air Force in early 1942 for use in an attack role. Armed with six 7.62mm machine-guns and able to carry up to 816kg of bombs, all were used in a training role under the designation A-33.

The aircraft used in that film was Northrop BT-1, a Navy carrier-based dive-bomber. Although also designed and built by Jack Northrop, and bore a family resemblance to the A-17A, the BT-1 was an entirely different design.

"I have a question. Was this the airplane that was used in the movie "Dive Bomber" starring Erroll Flynn and Fred MacMurry?"

Any comment or knowledge of this flight factor would be appreciated.

I have a question. Was this the airplane that was used in the movie "Dive Bomber" starring Erroll Flynn and Fred MacMurry?

What all was this aircraft called? "Nomad" "Nose Blower" what else?

please i need more informatios about- it

I am involved with a project that is investigating a mid-air collision between 2 A-17As in 1940. As such, I am looking for information on the glide ratio for the A-17A. Any comment or knowledge of this flight factor would be appreciated.


History

The Gamma family consisted of a number of variants. The Gamma family was an outgrowth of the Alpha, initially serving as a rugged civilian transport the Gamma eventually found it's way into military service with the US, Spain, China as war approached.

Model 2A, Qty 1: First Gamma delivered (1932). Purchased by Texico on February 14, 1933 for $40,000. Frank Hawks, the director of the Aviation department for the Texas Company used it for a number of record breaking flights. This aircraft was officially named "Texico 11" and commonly refered to as "Sky Chief". It was in this single seat model gamma that Hawks set a west to east nonstop record flying from Los Angeles to New York, in 13 hours, 26 minutes, 15 seconds (2 June 1933.)

Model 2B, Qty 1: Delivered to Lincoln Ellsworth who named it 'the polar star.' Ellsworth took the airplane to Antartica aboard a ship in 1934 with the famous aviator Bernt Balchen as his pilot. Ellsworth had planned a round trip flight between the bay of whales and the weddell sea. However, while still preparing for the flight the ice beneath the polar star broke apart and it was nearly lost. After considerable effort the plane was recovered and loaded back aboard a ship and then subsequently returned to America for repairs. Ellsworth and the Polar Star returned to Antartica in September, however before a flight could be made the plane broke a connecting rod and had to be shipped off once again for repairs. Finally, after returning once again to Antartica and finding an adequate runway the plane flew over Antartica on January 3, 1935. The following November Ellsworth and canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon succeeded in flying the Polar Star across Antartica, becoming the first men to visit western Antartica. The Polar Star made a number of landings on it's journey across Antartica before it was forced down by fuel starvation just 25 miles short of it's transantartic goal. Over 2400 miles had been flown before the aircraft was forced down. The crew abandoned the aircraft and walked the remaining 25 miles to their destination, taking 6 days to arrive. The aircraft was later recovered and donated to the Smithsonian where it is currently on display.

Model 2C (Army YA-13, XA-16), Qty 1: Built in May 1933, this aircraft was evaluated as an attack bomber in August. Armament consisted of 4 wing-mounted .30 guns, one rear .30 cal gun with provisions for a 1,100 lb bomb under the fuselage.

Model 2D, Qty 3: Sold to TWA in 1934 for use as single seat mail planes. One of which (s/n 9) was licensed to test wing and propeller de-icers, radio, gasoline analyzers and a GE turbo-supercharger. Used as an "Experimental Overweather Laboratory", studies of icing, engine efficienty, radio performance and turbulence were carried out between 20,000 and 35,000 ft. Another aircraft after it's TWA service was used in coastal defense patrols for the Spanish Republican air force.

Model 2E, Qty 1: Sold to the UK for use by the Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment.

Model 2L, Qty 1: Sold to Bristol Aeroplane in the UK for use as an engine test bed.

Model 2E, Qty 24: Twenty-three were sold to China as light bombers. Armament: 1600 lb bombs, 4 forward firing 7.62 mm machine guns, 1 rearward firing 7.62 mm machine gun mounted in a rear cockpit. They were used as attack bombers by the Chinease air force from 1934 until 1938. One was used by Frank Hawks on a South American sales tour. Airplane returned to America where it was eventually sold to a trading company that in turn disassembled the aircraft and shipped it to Russia.

Model 2E, Qty 25: Assembled in China from components provided by Northrop.

Model 1E, Qty 1: This two place, tandem cockpit experimental ship was exported to Sweden where it was used as a night mail plane.

Model 2G, Qty 1: Built as a 2-place gamma with a Curtiss Conqueror. Jacqueline Cochran ordered this aircraft with the intent to enter it in the MacRobertson Race although it was not entered. The powerplant was replaced with a P&W Twin Wasp Jr and Cochran entered it in the 1935 Bendix. Cochran leased the aircraft to Howard Hughes in 1935. Hughes had 3 new fuel tanks and a Wright Cyclone SGR-1820-G-5 installed and set a west to east transcontinental speed record of 9 hours, 26 minutes, 10 seconds.

Model 2H (2D2), Qty 1: Purchased in December 1934 and licensed experimental in January for testing the Sperry automatic pilot. Russell Thaw flew this aircraft to 3rd place in the 1935 Bendix. It was wrecked after an engine failure and rebuilt at the Northrop factory.

Model 5A (Japanese designation BXN1), Qty 1: Sold to the Japanese Navy and exported prior to 10-29-1935. Used for "a study of modern aviation engineering."

Model 5D (Japanese designation BXN2), Qty 1: Exported to Japan. Tail surfaces and interior were "Army type". After navy flight testing the aircraft was handed over to Nakajima Aircraft for study. Passed on to Manchurian Air Lines which used it for aerial reconnaissance above China and Russia through 1939.

Model 5B, Qty 1: A two place tandem aircraft with sliding cockpits located on the forward fuselage and a thined down aft fuselage. Eventually purchased by the Spanish Republican air force and used for coastal partrols.

Model 2F (A-17A and A-17AS), Qty 102: A derivative of the A-17 (Gamma 2C), the A-17A was equipped with retractable landing gear and dive flaps. One hundred A-17A aircraft were produced and delivered in 1936 and 37. Most were turned over to the Royal Air Force in 1940. Two unarmed 3-seat command transports designated A-17AS were delivered on of which was used by Maj Gen Westover, Chief of the USAAC. The second A-17AS was the personal aircraft of the assistant chief, Brig Gen H "Hap" Arnold.


Northrop XA-16 - History

1916: John K Northrop. 1928: Avion Corp, Burbank CA. 1929: Northrop Aircraft Corp, Union Air Terminal, Burbank. 1929: Northrop Aircraft Div, United Aircraft & Transport Corp, Burbank and Wichita KS (Stearman). 1932: Reorganization as Northrop Corp, subsdiary of Douglas Aircraft Co Inc, Mines Field. 1937: Became El Segundo Div of Douglas Co (old Moreland Co plant). 1939: Northrop Aircraft Inc, Hawthorne CA. 1952: Acquired Radioplane. 1959: Northrop Corp. 1994: Acquired Grumman Corp as Northrop-Grumman. 1999: Acquired Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. 2001: Acquired Litton Industries. 2002: Acquired TRW Inc.

2 SEE Gamma . Northrop 3A (Northrop)
Northrop 3A 3-view (Northrop)

3A (Design XP-948) 1935 = 1pClwM 830hp P&W R-1535-G Twin Wasp span: 33'6" length: 21'10" v: 278/266/67 ceiling: 31,600'. Retractable-gear development of XFT for Army pursuit design competition, but was never entered. POP: 1, lost at sea in a test flight on 7/30/35. Design rights sold in 1936 to Vought Co and became Vought V-141 . 5 SEE A-16 . 8A SEE Douglas 8A . Northrop A-9A [71-1367] (Northrop)

A-9 1972 = Close air support. 1pChwM rg two 7500# Lycoming YF102-LD-100 turbofans span: 58'0" length: 53'6" v: 449/322/x range: 3622 ceiling: 40,000' ff: 5/30/72 (p: Lew Nelson). Robert Bratt, Walt Fellers, Don Heinze, Jerry Huben . POP: 2 prototypes as YA-9A [71-1367/1368], turned over to NASA after flight testing. A-13 1933 = USAAC attack bomber from prototype Gamma 2-C [X12291]. 2pClwM 710hp Wright SR-1820-F2 span: 48'0" length: 29'2" load: 2863# v: 207/172/70 range: 1100. $80,950 POP: 1 as YA-13 [34-027]. Refitted with 950hp P&W R-1870-7, redesigned fin, three-blade prop as XA-16 . Northrop XA-16 [NX14998] (Northrop)

A-16, 5B 1935 = Rebuilt A-13 prototype (as Gamma 2-F) with 950hp P&W R-1830, three-blade prop, no wheel fairings ff: 3/x/35. Northrop designation was 5B . POP: 1 as XA-16 [NX14998]. Flight trials were disappointing as it was needlessly overpowered, and the project was cancelled (production units were to have used the 750hp R-1535-11). Northrop A-17 Rare unperforated flaps

A-17 - USAAC attack bomber from XA-16. Perforated flaps, fixed gear with streamlined partial fairings. The basic design was furthered by Douglas Co's acquired Northrop Model 8A as the Army A-33 .

Northrop A-17 Preparing for 1937 maneuvers

A-17 1935 = 750hp P&W R-1535-11 span: 47'9 length: 32'0" load: 2424# v: 206/170/68 range: 650-730 ceiling: 19,400'. In addition to external bomb racks, capable of carrying 20 frag bombs in an internal fuselage bay. $20,000 less engine and military equipment POP: 110 [35-051/160].

Northrop A-17A (William T Larkins)
Northrop A-17A "Big Nose" for cowling test (NACA)

A-17A (Douglas ) 1936 = Retractable gear, increased armament, 825hp P&W R-1535-13 length: 31'8" v: 225/175/x range: 800. POP: 129 [36-162/261, 38-327/355], of which 93 were refurbished as exports to France and, as Nomad, to RAF in 1940, with most of those ending up in South Africa. Northrop A-17AS (Northrop)

A-17AS 1936 = 3p high-speed command transport with 600hp R-1340-41 2p rear cockpit. POP: 2 [36-349/350] the first was used my MGenl Oscar Westover and the last by BGenl Henry H Arnold.

Northrop YB-35 and contrarotating props (Northrop)

YB-35 1948 = POP: 13 [42-102366/102378], of which 5 were redesignated as YB-35A. A 1948 order for 30 recons as RB-35/-49 was cancelled — as was a subcontract order to Martin for 205 B-35As — and destruction of the three prototypes began in March 1950.

YB-35A 1948 = POP: 5 from YB-35 scheduled, but redesignated as RB-35 [42-102374/102378] unfinished, cancelled. The last was redesignated as EB-35B, and [42-102376] became prototype YRB-49A .

YB-35B 1948 = Scheduled for eight Allison J35A-19. POP: 7 conversions from YB-35 [42-102370/102375, -102377] unfinished, cancelled.

EB-35B - Test-bed for the Turbodyne XT-37 turboprop engines in pods. POP: 1 conversion from YB-35A [42-102378] unfinished, cancelled.

RB-35B - Recon version with six wing jets and two pods. POP: 10 conversions from YB-35 cancelled.

Designations on Jet Conversion Program, Feb 1949

YB-35B
YB-35B
YB-35B
YB-35B
YB-35B
YB-35B
YRB-49A
YB-35B
EB-35B

s/n c/n model rev #1 rev #2 rev #3 disposition
42-13603
42-38323
42-102366
42-102367
42-102368
42-102369
42-102370
42-102371
42-102372
42-102373
42-102374
42-102375
42-102376
42-102377
42-102378
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
XB-35
XB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
YB-35
XB-35
XB-35
YB-35
YB-49
YB-49
YB-35
RB-35
RB-35
RB-35
RB-35
YB-35A
YB-35A
YB-35A
YB-35A
YB-35A
ERB-35
EB-35
RB-35
YB-49
YB-49
YRB-49A
RB-35B
RB-35B
RB-35B
RB-35B
RB-35B
RB-35B
RB-35B
RB-35B
static
salvaged
salvaged
salvaged
flight tests
crashed
salvaged
flight tests
flight tests
flight tests
flight tests
flight tests
flight tests
prototype
flight tests
test bed
Data: Winged Wonders, E T Wooldridge, NASM 1983 Northrop Wings Being converted to jet power (Northrop)

B-49 - Jet conversion of B-35. Predestined to fail, the airframes were built for piston-engine technology, and putting jet engines into them did not automatically result in jetlike performance. It lost out to its competitor, Boeing B-52. Some 40 years before the concept of stealth had become reality, Max Stanley flew the YB-49 on several prearranged flights around radar sites south of San Francisco to test its effectiveness against detection. His aircraft was never detected on radar scopes until it was directly over their site.

Northrop YB-49 (AETC)

YB-49 1947 = 7p flying wing eight 4000# Allison J-35A-15 span: 172'0" length: 53'1" v: 493/400/90 range (with 10,000# bombload): 2800 ceiling: 40,700' ff: 10/21/47 (p: Max Stanley). Empty wt: 88,100#, gross wt: 21,300# bomb load: 37,400#. POP: 2 conversions from YB-35, originally designated YB-35B [42-102367/102368]. The latter crashed after structural failure on 1/13/48, killing all five on board, including Capt Glen Edwards, who is memorialized in the renaming of Muroc AFB to Edwards AFB. The first YB-49 dramatically demonstrated its worth in early 1949 by flying non-stop from Edwards AFB to Washington DC in 04h:30m, a distance of 2,258 miles at an average speed of 511 mph (p: Maj Robert L Cardenas).

XC time per Cardenas himself was 4h:05m point-to-point, making the speed 546 mph, not 511 (the latter was based on the time of landing). This time was compared to the [Boeing] XB-47, a shorter range deathtrap, which was not much improved by the B-47A that was not operationally accepted, and the -47Bs were not available operationally until, much modified, in late 1952. ( — Terrence O'Neill 11/21/01)

Northrop YRB-49A (Northrop via Les E Bryan coll)

YRB-49A 1950 = Strategic reconnaissance. 5p flying wing six 5600# J-35A-19, two of them in pods under the wing v: 512 range: 2650 ff: 5/4/50 (p: Fred Bretcher). POP: 1 conversion from YB-35 [42-102369] with revised bomb bay. Last flight in early 1951 placed in storage, then scrapped in Oct 1953 to end the remarkable Northrop Flying Wings.

Northrop XBT-1 [9745] (Northrop)

XBT-1 1935 = 750hp P&W R-1535 ff: 8/19/35. POP: 1 [9745].

Northrop BT-1 [0602] (William T Larkins)

BT-1 1936 = 825hp R-1535-94 v: 222/192/x range: 550 ceiling: 22,500'. POP: 52 [0590/0626, 0628/0643]. One tested with a fixed tricycle gear [0643], the first of this kind to land on a carrier.

Northrop XBT-2 [0627] (Northrop)

XBT-2 1939 (El Segundo ) = Modified BT-1 by Douglas with fully retracting gear, wing slots, redesigned canopy, and 800hp Wright XR-1820-32 as prototype Douglas SBD-1 span: 41'6" length: 31'8" v: 256 ceiling: 28,100'. POP: 1 [0627].

Northrop Delta 1D-3 [NC14265] (Frank Rezich coll)

Delta 1D-3 1934 (ATC 2-490) = Delta 1D repowered with 650hp P&W Hornet S4 POP: 1 [NC14265].

Northrop RT-1 [ATC 382] (Northrop via David Hatfield coll)

Delta 1D-7 1935 = To USCG as RT-1 , POP: 1 [382].

Northrop-Vickers Delta Mk.I [RCAF-667] (RCAF)

Delta 1D-8 1935 = Export to Vickers-Canada as pattern plane for their RCAF production in 1936. POP (Northrop): 1, (Vickers Ltd): 3 as Delta Mk.I photo-survey ship and 17 with added windows as Delta Mk.II.

XF-5A 1963 = Static airframe only POP: 1 [59-4993] c/n N9000.

YF-5A 1963 = Data similar to N-156F added fuel tanks, strengthened gear. 1p prototype ff: 7/31/63 (p: Hank Chouteau). POP: 3 [59-4987/4989].

Northrop F-5A [63-8372] (USAF Museum)

F-5A 1963 = 1p with two 4080# J85. POP: about 170 as exports to Greece, Iran, Libya, Morocco, Norway (64 units), Philippines, S Korea, S Vietnam, Spain (70 units), Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, and Venezuela. A batch of these went to USAF for both training and combat duties. Two planes [63-8372, 65-10573] were rebuilt as Grumman X-29A FSW by that company in 1984.

CF-5A, NF-5 (Canada ) 1965 = 1p built by Canadair, with Orenda J85-GE-15. POP: 125, included some CF-5D , plus 105 one- and two-place models to Netherlands as NF-5 .

RF-5A 196? = Long-range photo-recon conversion.

Northrop F-5B [63-8445] (USAF Museum)

F-5B 1964 = 2p trainer version. POP: 18.

YF-5B 1969 = Revised and upgraded as a joint-service tactical fighter and combat trainer to match USSR's MiG-21. 1pClwM rg two 5000# GE J85-GE-21 turbojets span: 26'8" length: 48'2". POP: 1 prototype test-bed ff: 5/28/69 (p: John Fritz).

CF-5D (Canada) 1965 = 2p trainer.

Northrop F-5E (Northrop)

F-5E Tiger II 1972 = Tactical fighter ff: 8/11/72 (p: Hank Chouteau) v: 1186/623/x range: 1880 ceiling: 52,500'. POP: 12 [159878/159882, 160792/160796, 162307], plus exports.

Northrop F-5F [160966] (Northrop)

F-5F 1974 = 2p fighter-trainer length: 51'8" v: Mach 1.53/Mach .84/x range: 1771 ceiling: 51,300' ff: 9/25/74 (p: Dick Thomas). POP: 3 [160964/], plus exports.

Northrop F-5G/F-20

F-5G 19?? = No data. Redesignated as F-20 .

Northrop XF-15 (Dave Hatfield coll)

XF-15 1945 = Conversion from XP-61E. POP: 1 prototype [45-39549].

Northrop XF-15A [43-8335] (Northrop)

XF-15A 1945 = 2p conversion from P-61C. POP: 1 prototype [43-8335].

Northrop F-15A [45-59335] (Northrop)

F-15A 1946 = span: 66'0" length: 50'4" v: 440/315/94 range: 4000 ceiling: 41,000' 500-gal fuel tank capable of carrying up to 6 aerial cameras. POP: 36 modified from P-61C [49-59300/59335] became RF-16C in 1948.

XF-89 1948 = POP: 1 prototype [46-678] ff (XF-89): 8/16/48 (p: Fred Bretcher). Made 102 test flights before crashing on 2/22/50.

YF-89A 1949 = Second prototype ff: 11/15/49. POP: 1 [46-679].

Northrop F-89A [49-2435] (Northrop)

F-89A 1950 = 2pCmwM rg two Allison J35-A span: 56'0" length: 53'0" v: 600+ range: 1000+. POP: 18 [49-2431/2448].

DF-89A 19?? = Drone controller conversion.

F-89B 1950 = Lear F5 autopilot, ILS system added. POP: 30 [49-2449/2478].

DF-89B 195? = Drone controller conversion.

F-89C 1951 = Redesigned tail with internally-balanced elevators. POP: 164 [50-741/804, 51-5757/5856].

Northrop F-89D [51-422] (Northrop)

F-89D 1952 = Equiment changes, nose fuel tank and underwing pylon tanks. POP: 682 [51-400/446, -11298/11443, 52-1829/1961, -2127/2165, 53-2447/2686, 54-184/260].

YF-89D 1951 = POP: 18.

YF-89E (N71) 1952 = POP: 1 modified YF-89D as Allison J-71-A engine test bed. Not registered by AF.

F-89F - Cancelled.

F-89G - Cancelled

F-89H 1956 = Fitted for Hughes Falcon missiles. POP: 156 [54-261/416].

F-89J 1956 = Fitted for MB-1 atomic rockets. POP: 350 modified from YF-89D.

Northrop XFT-1 [9400] (W T Larkins coll)

XFT-1 1934 = v: 228 ceiling: 25,600'. POP: 1 [9400].

Northrop XFT-2 [9400] (USN)

XFT-2 1935 = XFT-1 modified and repowered with 700 R-1535 v: 244 ceiling: 27,500'. Destroyed in a spin-induced crash.

Gamma 5B 1935 = Semimilitary export to Mexico, diverted to Spanish Civil War 700hp P&W SA1-G Twin Wasp Jr, later Wright G Cyclone. POP: 1 [NR/X14998=XAABI] c/n 188.

Gamma 5D 1936 = Similar to 5D but with 550hp P&W S3H-1. POP: 1 [X16091] to Japanese Navy. Reported by Nakajima engineers as being "very helpful" in designing their Type 97 "Kate" attack-bomber.

RealPlayer: Flying the P-61 Series Airplane Northrop XP-61A [41-19509] (Northrop)
XP-61 1942 = Two 2000hp P&W R-2800-10 ff: 5/21/42 (p: Vance Breese). POP: 2 prototypes [41-19509/19510].

Northrop YP-61A [41-18876] (number shown as "118867", likely a sign-painter's error) (Northrop)

YP-61 1943 = R-2800-10. POP: 13 for service testing [41-18876/18888].

Northrop P-61A [42-5507] (Northrop)

P-61A, F-61A 1943 = Production series two 2250hp P&W R-2800-65 span: 66'0" length: 48'11" v: 369/222/x range: 1450 ceiling: 33,100'. Only the first 37 had top turret and three-man crew first 45 with R-2800-10, the rest with 2250hp R-2800-65. POP: 200 [42-5485/5934, -39348/39397], included suffix variants of A-1 with R-2800-10, A-5 and A-10 with water injection, and A-11 with drop tanks. From this lot 12 were transferred to USMC in 1945 as F2T-1 .

Northrop P-61B-15 [42-39728] (Northrop)
Northrop P-61B-25 Underside and gear [43-8238] (Northrop)

P-61B, F-61B 1943 = R-2800-65 span: 66'0" length: 49'7" load: 16,300# (?>7700#) v: 366/200/x range: 1900 ceiling: 33,100', First 200 without top turret. POP: 450 42-39398/39757, 43-8231/8320], included suffix variants from B-1 to -25 included long-nose model length: 57'7".

Northrop P-61C [43-8323] (Northrop)

P-61C, F-61C 1945 = Final production version, with 2100hp turbosupercharged R-2800-73. POP: POP: 41 [42-8321/8361], of which 36 were converted into F-15A in 1945.

XP-61D 1944 = 2800hp turbocharged R-2800-77 length: 48'11" load: 16,510# v: 430/315/x range: 1050. POP: 2 modified by Goodyear Co from P-61A for high-altitude experiments [42-5559, -5587].

Northrop P-61E [42-39549] (Northrop)

XP-61E 1945 = 2p long-range escort fighter 2100 hp R-2800-65 length: 49'7" load: 18,831# v: 376 range: 2250. POP: 2 conversions from P-61B minus radar turret and with side-by-side seats under a bubble canopy [42-39549, -39557]. The first was converted to XF-15 , the latter was lost in testing.

XP-61F = Modification of XP-61C as escort fighter project cancelled.

P-61G 1945 = Unarmed weather researcher. POP: 16 conversions from P-61B/C.


Contents

The Northrop Gamma 2F was an attack bomber derivative of the Northrop Gamma transport aircraft, developed in parallel with the Northrop Gamma 2C, (of which one was built), designated the YA-13 and XA-16. The Gamma 2F had a revised tail, cockpit canopy and wing flaps compared with the Gamma 2C, and was fitted with new semi-retractable landing gear. It was delivered to the United States Army Air Corps for tests on 6 October 1934, and after modifications which included fitting with a conventional fixed landing gear, was accepted by the Air Corps. [1] A total of 110 aircraft were ordered as the A-17 in 1935. [2]

The resulting A-17 was equipped with perforated flaps, and had fixed landing gear with partial fairings. It was fitted with an internal fuselage bomb bay that carried fragmentation bombs and well as external bomb racks.

Northrop developed new landing gear, this time completely retractable, producing the A-17A variant. This version was again purchased by the Army Air Corps, who placed orders for 129 aircraft. [3] By the time these were delivered, the Northrop Corporation had been taken over by Douglas Aircraft Company, export models being known as the Douglas Model 8. [4]

United States Edit

The A-17 entered service in February 1936, and proved a reliable and popular aircraft. [5] However, in 1938, the Air Corps decided that attack aircraft should be multi-engined, rendering the A-17 surplus to requirements. [6]

From 14 December 1941, A-17s were used for coastal patrols by the 59th Bombardment Squadron (Light) on the Pacific side of the Panama Canal. [7]

The last remaining A-17s, used as utility aircraft, were retired from USAAF service in 1944. [8]

Other countries Edit

Argentina Edit

Argentina purchased 30 Model 8A-2s in 1937 and received them between February and March 1938 their serial numbers were between 348 and 377. These remained in frontline service until replaced by the I.Ae. 24 Calquin, continuing in service as trainers and reconnaissance aircraft until their last flight in 1954. [9] [10]

Peru Edit

Peru ordered ten Model 8A-3Ps, these being delivered from 1938 onwards. These aircraft were used in combat by Peru in the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of July 1941. [11] The survivors of these aircraft were supplemented by 13 Model 8A-5s from Norway (see below), delivered via the United States in 1943 (designated A-33). These remained in service until 1958. [11]

Sweden Edit

The Swedish government purchased a licence for production of a Mercury-powered version, building 63 B 5Bs and 31 B 5Cs, production taking place from 1938 to 1941. They were replaced in service with the Swedish Air Force by SAAB 17s from 1944. [12] The Swedish version was used as a dive bomber and as such it featured prominently in the 1941 film Första divisionen.

The Netherlands Edit

The Netherlands, in urgent need of modern combat aircraft, placed an order for 18 Model 8A-3Ns in 1939, with all being delivered by the end of the year. Used in a fighter role for which they were unsuited, the majority were destroyed by Luftwaffe attacks on 10 May 1940, the first day of the German invasion. [13]

Iraq Edit

Iraq purchased 15 Model 8A-4s, in 1940. They were destroyed in the Anglo-Iraqi War in 1941. [14]

Norway Edit

Norway ordered 36 Model 8A-5Ns in 1940. These were not ready by the time of the German Invasion of Norway and were diverted to the Norwegian training camp in Canada, which became known as Little Norway. [15] Norway decided to sell 18 of these aircraft as surplus to Peru, but these were embargoed by the United States, who requisitioned the aircraft, using them as trainers, designating them the A-33. Norway sold their surviving aircraft to Peru in 1943. [16]

Great Britain Edit

In June 1940, 93 ex-USAAC aircraft were purchased by France, and refurbished by Douglas, including being given new engines. [14] These were not delivered before the fall of France and 61 were taken over by the British Purchasing Commission for the British Commonwealth use under the name Northrop Nomad Mk I. [14]

South Africa Edit

After the RAF assessed the Northrop Nomad Mk Is as "obsolete", most of the Nomads were sent to South Africa for use as trainers and target tugs. [6] [17] [18] The Nomads suffered shortages of spare parts (particularly engines) and from 1942 were gradually replaced by Fairey Battles. The last Nomads were retired in 1944. [18]

Canada Edit

The Royal Canadian Air Force received 32 Nomads that had been part of a French order of 93 aircraft. When France fell in 1940, this order was taken over by Great Britain who transferred 32 of the aircraft to Canada where they were used as advanced trainers and target tugs as part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. [19] [20] These were serialed 3490 to 3521 all were assigned to No. 3 Training Command RCAF. [9]


Operational history [ edit | edit source ]

United States [ edit | edit source ]

The A-17 entered service in February 1936, and proved a reliable and popular aircraft. Β] However, in 1938, the Air Corps decided that attack aircraft should be multi-engined, rendering the A-17 surplus to requirements. Γ]

From 14 December 1941, A-17s were used for coastal patrols by the 59th Bombardment Squadron (Light) on the Pacific side of the Panama Canal. Δ]

The last remaining A-17s, used as utility aircraft, were retired from USAAF service in 1944. Ε]

Other countries [ edit | edit source ]

Argentina [ edit | edit source ]

Argentina purchased 30 Model 8A-2s in 1937 and received them between February and March 1938. Their serial numbers were between 348 and 377. These remained in front line service until replaced by the I.Ae. 24 Calquin, continuing in service as trainers and reconnaissance aircraft until their last flight in 1954. Ζ] Η]

Peru [ edit | edit source ]

Peru ordered 10 Model 8A-3Ps, these being delivered from 1938 onwards. These aircraft were used in combat by Peru in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian war of July 1941. ⎖] The survivors of these aircraft were supplemented by 13 Model 8A-5s from Norway (see below), delivered via the United States in 1943 (designated A-33). These remained in service until 1958. ⎖]

Sweden [ edit | edit source ]

The Swedish government purchased a licence for production of a Mercury powered version, building 63 B 5Bs and 31 B 5Cs, production taking place from 1938 to 1941. They were replaced in service with the Swedish Air Force by SAAB 17s from 1944. ⎗] The Swedish version was used as a dive bomber and as such it featured prominently in the 1941 film Första Divisionen ( sv ).

The Netherlands [ edit | edit source ]

The Netherlands, in urgent need of modern combat aircraft, placed an order for 18 Model 8A-3Ns in 1939, with all being delivered by the end of the year. Used in a fighter role for which they were unsuited, the majority were destroyed by Luftwaffe attacks on 10 May 1940, the first day of the German invasion. ⎘]

Iraq [ edit | edit source ]

Iraq purchased 15 Model 8A-4s, in 1940. They were destroyed in the Anglo-Iraqi War in 1941. ⎙]

Norway [ edit | edit source ]

Norway ordered 36 Model 8A-5Ns in 1940. These were not ready by the time of the German Invasion of Norway and were diverted to Norwegian Training unit in Canada, which became known as Little Norway. ⎚] Norway decided to sell 18 of these aircraft as surplus to Peru, but these were embargoed by the United States, who requisitioned the aircraft, using them as trainers, designating them the A-33. Norway sold their surviving aircraft to Peru in 1943. ⎛]

Great Britain [ edit | edit source ]

In June 1940, 93 ex-USAAC aircraft were purchased by France, and refurbished by Douglas, including being given new engines. ⎙] These were not delivered before the fall of France and 61 were taken over by the British Purchasing Commission for the British Commonwealth use under the name Northrop Nomad Mk I.

South Africa [ edit | edit source ]

The RAF assessed the Northrop Nomad Mk Is as "obsolete" and sent them to South Africa for use as trainers, serialled AS440 to AS462, AS958 to AS976 and AW420 to AW438. Γ] ⎜]

Canada [ edit | edit source ]

The Royal Canadian Air Force received 32 Nomads that had been part of a French order of 93 aircraft. When France fell in 1940, this order was taken over by Great Britain who transferred 32 of the aircraft to Canada where they were used as advanced trainers and target tugs as part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Γ] ⎝] These were serialled 3490 to 3521 all were assigned to No. 3 Training Command RCAF. Ζ]


Contents

Jack Northrop founded 3 companies using his name. The first was the Avion Corporation in 1928, which was absorbed in 1929 by the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation ΐ] as a subsidiary named "Northrop Aircraft Corporation" (and later became part of Boeing). Α] The parent company moved its operations to Kansas in 1931, and so Jack, along with Donald Douglas, established a "Northrop Corporation" located in El Segundo, California, which produced several successful designs, including the Northrop Gamma and Northrop Delta. However, labor difficulties led to the dissolution of the corporation by Douglas in 1937, and the plant became the El Segundo Division of Douglas Aircraft. Β]

Northrop still sought his own company, and so in 1939 he established the "Northrop Corporation" in nearby Hawthorne, California, a site located by co-founder Moye Stephens. The corporation ranked 100th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Γ] It was there that the P-61 Black Widow night fighter, the B-35 and YB-49 experimental flying wing bombers, the F-89 Scorpion interceptor, the SM-62 Snark intercontinental cruise missile, and the F-5 Freedom Fighter economical jet fighter (and its derivative, the successful T-38 Talon trainer) were developed and built. Ώ]

The F-5 was so successful that Northrop spent much of the 1970s and 1980s attempting to duplicate its success with similar lightweight designs. Their first attempt to improve the F-5 was the N-300, which featured much more powerful engines and moved the wing to a higher position to allow for increased ordnance that the higher power allowed. The N-300 was further developed into the P-530 with even larger engines, this time featuring a small amount of "bypass" (turbofan) to improve cooling and allow the engine bay to be lighter, as well as much more wing surface. The P-530 also included radar and other systems considered necessary on modern aircraft. When the Light Weight Fighter program was announced, the P-530 was stripped of much of its equipment to become the P-600, and eventually the YF-17 Cobra, which lost the competition to the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon.

Nevertheless, the YF-17 Cobra was modified with help from McDonnell Douglas to become the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet in order to fill a similar lightweight design competition for the US Navy. Northrop intended to sell a de-navalized version as the F-18L, but the basic F-18A continued to outsell it, leading to a long and fruitless lawsuit between the two companies. Northrop continued to build much of the F-18 fuselage and other systems after this period, but also returned to the original F-5 design with yet another new engine to produce the F-20 Tigershark as a low-cost aircraft. This garnered little interest in the market, and the project was dropped.

In 1985, Northrop bought northrop.com, the sixth .com domain created. Δ]

Based on the experimentation with flying wings the company developed the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber of the 1990s. Ε] Ζ]

In 1994, partly due to the loss of the Advanced Tactical Fighter contract to Lockheed Martin and the removal of their proposal from consideration for the Joint Strike Fighter competition, the company bought Grumman to form Northrop Grumman.


Northrop Grumman TX

The Northrop Grumman TX (also Scaled Composites Model 400) is the prototype of a supersonic trainer aircraft. With the plane Northrop Grumman participated in the TX program of the US Air Force , in which a successor to the T-38 Talon was sought.

The US Air Force has been using the T-38 Talon for pilot training since the 1960s. Since the end of their service life is foreseeable after more than 50 years, despite modernization, the Air Education and Training Command (AETC) started procurement of a successor model in 2003. Northrop first entered into a partnership with BAE Systems , L-3 Communications and Rolls-Royce in 2014 to adapt the Hawk T2 / 128 to the requirements of the US Air Force. With a similar concept, McDonnell Douglas was already successful in the 1980s when the Hawk 60 was adapted for the US Navy , resulting in the T-45 Goshawk . However, Northrop rejected the concept again in 2015 and decided to develop a completely separate model for the TX program.

On August 19, 2016, Northrop Grumman presented the prototype at Mojave Airport . The prototype built by the Scaled Composites subsidiary is visually similar to the T-38 Talon, but is designed as a single-jet machine. Here was turbofan engine General Electric F404 -102D installed that already for the T-50 Golden Eagle is used. In September 2018, the US Department of Defense announced that it had chosen the competing product from Boeing / SAAB.


XBT-1 Prototype, one built. BT-1 Production variant, 54 built. BT-1S A BT-1 (c/n346, BuNo 0643) was fitted with a fixed tri-cycle undercarriage. This aircraft was damaged in a crash on 6 February 1939, returned to Douglas and repaired to BT-1 standard. [1] Comparison between the XBT-1 (BuNo 9745) and XBT-2 (BuNo 0627) on 4 December 1936 XBT-2 One BT-1 modified with fully retractable landing gear and other modifications. BT-2 Production variant of the XBT-2, 144 on order completed as SBD-1 and SBD-2. Douglas DB-19 One BT-1 (c/n346, BuNo 0643), the former BT-1S, was modified as the DB-19 which was tested by the Imperial Japanese Navy as the Douglas DXD1 (long designation - Douglas Navy Experimental Type D Attack Aircraft) [1]

Data from United States Navy Aircraft since 1911 [3]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two (pilot and gunner)
  • Length: 31   ft 8   in (9.65   m)
  • Wingspan: 41   ft 6   in (12.65   m)
  • Height: 9   ft 11   in (3.02   m)
  • Wing area: 319   sq   ft (29.6   m 2 )
  • Empty weight: 4,606   lb (2,094   kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 7,197   lb (3,271   kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1535-94 Twin Wasp Jr. double row radial air-cooled engine, 825 hp (615 kW)
  • Maximum speed: 193   kn (222   mph, 357   km/h) at 9,500 ft (2,900 m)
  • Cruise speed: 167   kn (192   mph, 309   km/h)
  • Range: 1,000   nmi (1,150   mi, 1,852   km)
  • Service ceiling: 25,300   ft (7,710   m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,270   ft/min (6.5   m/s)

Northrop Grumman Marine Systems Celebrates 100 Years in Operation in Sunnyvale, California

SUNNYVALE, Calif., Aug. 23, 2006 (PRIMEZONE) -- A 50-year-old business forced to rebuild after its factories were destroyed in the great San Francisco earthquake of 1906 now celebrates its 100th anniversary at its second home here in Sunnyvale.

Northrop Grumman Corporation's (NYSE:NOC) Marine Systems business unit is a leading provider of missile launch systems, propulsion systems and power generation systems for naval submarines and surface ships.

In 1906, it was known as the Joshua Hendy Iron Works, and specialized in building mining and energy systems. After the earthquake, the company was offered 32 free acres of agricultural land by the Sunnyvale Land Company, which was eager to attract industry to the young community to promote population growth. Company president John Hendy, nephew of the founder, accepted the offer and new facilities were built along the Southern Pacific Railroad's main line.

Northrop Grumman commemorated the centennial with a special event here on August 10. Most of its 1,100 Sunnyvale-based employees gathered with dozens of invited guests and customers for speeches, presentations, dedication of a time capsule, and birthday cake. Speakers included U.S. Rep. Anna Eshoo Sunnyvale Mayor Ron Swegles Marion Hendy-Rust, a descendant of the founder Carl Guardino, president & CEO, Silicon Valley Leadership Group Lynden Davis of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Jim Pitts, president of Northrop Grumman's Electronic Systems sector and John Casey, president of General Dynamics Electric Boat. Northrop Grumman also presented donations to Junior Achievement and the Naval Postgraduate School Foundation, Inc.

"Our first 100 years have been distinguished by a long heritage of engineering and manufacturing excellence," said David Perry, vice president of Northrop Grumman Marine Systems, who presided over the event. "With our skilled workforce and highly specialized manufacturing capability, we will continue to deliver products critical to our nation's future."

Founder Joshua Hendy arrived in San Francisco during the Gold Rush in 1849, but saw quickly that supplying the miners would be a more reliable route to success. After founding a saw mill and pursuing related lumber and mining interests, he founded the Joshua Hendy Machine Works in 1856. The company specialized in manufacturing steam engines, boilers, and mining and saw mill machinery. For decades afterward, the company remained an industry leader by constantly innovating. Products included hydraulic elevators and monitors, ore concentrators, ore feeders and stamp mills. The name was changed to the Joshua Hendy Iron Works in 1895 when a cast iron and steel foundry was added.

After moving to Sunnyvale, the company specialized in mining and energy systems until the outbreak of World War II, when it moved more heavily into military production. Products manufactured included torpedo mount tubes, EC-2 Liberty cargo ship engines, steam turbines and reduction gear sets for the U.S. Navy. Westinghouse Electric Corporation bought the Joshua Hendy Iron Works in 1947. In 1996, Westinghouse sold its Electronic Systems Group, which included the Marine Systems unit, to Northrop Grumman Corporation.

A pioneer in missile launch technology, Northrop Grumman Marine Systems has produced every fleet ballistic missile launch system from its inception through the Trident submarines currently deployed. The Sunnyvale site is a critical supplier of turbine generator sets for nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers. The company is also the Navy's supplier of main propulsion units for nuclear attack submarines. Current products also include the Multiple All-Up-Round Canister system, turbine generator sets for CVN-21 aircraft carriers, and both main propulsion units and ship service turbine generators for Virginia class submarines.



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